DATABASES

Economia e Management DATABASES

0212700129
DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT & INNOVATION SYSTEMS
EQF6
BUSINESS MANAGEMENT
2022/2023

OBBLIGATORIO
YEAR OF COURSE 3
YEAR OF DIDACTIC SYSTEM 2014
SPRING SEMESTER
CFUHOURSACTIVITY
954LESSONS
Objectives
THE PURPOSE OF THE COURSE IS TO OFFER AN INTRODUCTION TO BASIC CONCEPTS ("KNOWING") AND TECHNIQUES ("KNOWING HOW TO DO") ON DATABASES, ON QUERY AND MANAGEMENT LANGUAGES AND ON DESIGN TECHNIQUES AND METHODS THAT CAN BE USEFUL TO THE STUDENT. FOR THE CONTINUATION OF MASTER'S STUDIES AND FOR HIS FUTURE WORK.
IN PARTICULAR, THE MODEL RELATING TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE, THE STUDY OF THE BASES OF WHICH STUDENTS HAVE ALREADY DEALT WITH IN PREVIOUS COURSES WILL INITIALLY BE DEEPENED: THE RELATIONAL MODEL WITH REFERENCE TO SYSTEMS (IN PARTICULAR TO THE SQL LANGUAGE). THE CONCEPTUAL AND LOGICAL DESIGN PROCESS OF RELATIONAL DATABASES WILL THEN BE ADDRESSED, AND THEIR VERIFICATION AND OPTIMIZATION, WHICH WILL ALLOW, STARTING FROM USER REQUIREMENTS, TO PRODUCE QUALITY DATABASE STRUCTURES. THE MAIN TECHNIQUES FOR DISPLAYING AND PROCESSING DATA, SUCH AS REPORTS, FORMS AND FORMS, WILL BE STUDIED IN DEPTH.
FINALLY, SOME ADVANCED TOPICS WILL BE INTRODUCED SUCH AS DATAWAREHOUSING AND DATA MINING, THE PROBLEM OF BIG DATA, ONLINE DATABASES, MULTIMEDIA DATABASES.
PARTICULAR EMPHASIS IS PLACED ON THE APPLICATION ASPECT, WHICH IS A FUNDAMENTAL PART OF THE TEACHING AND FINAL ASSESSMENT.
THE STUDENT WILL BE ABLE TO: FIRST CONCEPTUALLY AND THEN LOGICALLY DESIGN A RELATIONAL DBMS USING APPROPRIATE CASE TOOLS. HE WILL BE ABLE TO VERIFY THE DESIGN THROUGH THE MAIN OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES WILL BE DESIGN, SUCH AS NORMALIZATION. AT THE END THE STUDENT WILL BE ABLE TO DEVELOP SMALL DB-BASED MULTIMEDIA APPLICATIONS WORKING FROM PREVIOUSLY DEVELOPED PROJECTS.
Prerequisites
BASIC CONCEPTS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE, AS FROM THE COURSE "FONDAMENTI DI INFORMATICA" OF THIS DEGREE COURSE.

Contents
THE COURSE CONSISTS OF 54 TEACHING HOURS (9 CREDITS). IN PARTICULAR, 6 CREDITS (36 HOURS) WILL BE DEDICATED TO LECTURES AND 3 CREDITS (18 HOURS) TO EXERCISES AND ANALYSIS, DEVELOPMENT AND DISCUSSION OF PROJECTS.
IN DETAIL, IT IS STRUCTURED AS FOLLOWS:
MODULE 1: INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND DBMS (30 HOURS IN TOTAL, OF WHICH 18 HOURS OF LECTURES AND 12 HOURS OF EXERCISES), DIVIDED AS FOLLOWS:
•BASIC CONCEPTS: INFORMATION SYSTEMS - DBS AND DBMS - DATA MODELS - LANGUAGES, USERS, ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES - MAIN PARTS OF A DBMS.
•THE RELATIONAL MODEL: RELATIONAL MODEL - STRUCTURES - INTEGRITY CONSTRAINTS.
•THE SQL LANGUAGE: SIMPLE QUERIES - AGGREGATION QUERIES - QUERIES ON GROUPED DATA - QUERIES ON MULTIPLE TABLES - NESTED QUERIES - SET QUERIES - DATA MANIPULATION QUERIES.
MODULE 2: THE DESIGN OF A DATABASE (24 HOURS IN TOTAL, OF WHICH 18 HOURS OF LECTURES AND 6 HOURS OF EXERCISES AND PROJECTS), DIVIDED AS FOLLOWS:
ENTITY-RELATIONSHIP MODEL (CONCEPTUAL DESIGN)
•ENTITIES, RELATIONSHIPS, ATTRIBUTES - CARDINALITY - IDENTIFIERS - GENERALIZATIONS - SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION OF AN ER SCHEMA (BUSINESS RULES, DATA DICTIONARY, CONSTRAINT RULES, DERIVATION RULES)
RESTRUCTURING AN ENTITY-RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM:
•APPLICATION LOAD ESTIMATION (TABLE OF VOLUMES, TABLE OF OPERATIONS, TABLE OF ACCESSES) - ANALYSIS OF REDUNDANCIES - ELIMINATION OF GENERALIZATIONS - PARTITIONING / UNION OF CONCEPTS - CHOICE OF MAIN IDENTIFIERS.
TRANSFORMATION OF AN ER DIAGRAM INTO A LOGIC SCHEME (LOGICAL DESIGN):
•TRANSFORMATION OF ENTITIES - TRANSFORMATION OF BINARY RELATIONSHIPS 1-1, 1-N, N: M - TRANSFORMATION OF K-AIR RELATIONSHIP.
NORMALIZATION OF A LOGICAL SCHEME:
•REDUNDANCIES, ANOMALIES - FUNCTIONAL DEPENDENCIES - NORMAL FORMS - BOYCE AND CODD NORMAL FORM, TRANSFORMATION INTO BC NORMAL FORM - PROPERTIES OF DECOMPOSITIONS (DECOMPOSITION WITHOUT LOSSES, MAINTENANCE OF FUNCTIONAL DEPENDENCIES) - THIRD NORMAL FORM - OTHER NORMAL FORMS.
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF PROJECTS
•• SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL - TRAINING SOCIETY
Teaching Methods
THE COURSE AIMS TO ACCOMPANY STUDENTS IN THE LIFELONG LEARNING PROCESS, WHICH INVOLVES CONTINUOUS UPDATING (FOR A LIFETIME) OF KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS, TRYING TO STIMULATE CURIOSITY AND INTEREST IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND NEW TECHNOLOGIES.

THEORETICAL LESSONS
TO INCREASE ATTENTION AND LEARNING ABILITY, THE TEACHER WILL SHOW THE "PRACTICAL" IMPLICATIONS OF WHAT WAS PRESENTED IN CLASS AND WILL ENCOURAGE STUDENTS TO INTERACT CONTINUOUSLY WITH HIM AND WITH OTHER STUDENTS. TO MAINTAIN ALERT ATTENTION, USE WILL BE MADE OF SLIDES, SUITABLY ACCOMPANIED BY MULTIMEDIA ELEMENTS. IN ORDER TO ACCUSTOM THEM TO SELF-LEARNING, STUDENTS WILL BE INVITED TO DEEPEN THE TOPICS OF THE COURSE BY ALSO ACCESSING ONLINE RESOURCES.

EXAMPLES, EXERCISES AND MINI PROJECTS
THE TEACHER, TO GIVE SUBSTANCE TO WHAT IS THEORETICALLY EXPLAINED, WILL MAKE EXTENSIVE USE OF EXAMPLES, GUIDED EXERCISES TO BE CARRIED OUT IN CLASS (THE SOLUTION OF WHICH WILL BE IMMEDIATELY DESCRIBED AND COMMENTED ON) AND EXERCISES TO BE CARRIED OUT AT HOME BY THE STUDENT. THESE EXERCISES WILL BE OF INCREMENTAL COMPLEXITY, IN ORDER TO RECALL CONCEPTS STUDIED IN PREVIOUS LESSONS.
THE EXERCISES WILL BE INTEGRATED WITH MINI PROJECTS, GRADUALLY MORE COMPLEX. EACH MINI PROJECT WILL INCREMENTALLY COVER THE TOPICS COVERED UP TO THAT POINT DURING THE COURSE. EACH MINI PROJECT WILL BE INTRODUCED, DESCRIBED, POSSIBLY STARTED AND THEN LEFT TO CONCLUDE FOR THE STUDENTS IN THE CLASSROOM OR AT HOME. THE COMPLETE SOLUTION OF EACH MINI-PROJECT WILL BE PRESENTED. IN THE FINAL LESSONS OF THE COURSE, THE TEACHER WILL PRESENT TWO COMPLETE AND NON-TRIVIAL PROJECTS, STARTING FROM THE ANALYSIS OF THE REQUIREMENTS UP TO THE NORMALIZATION.

FINAL COMPLETE PROJECT
IN THE LAST PART OF THE COURSE, STUDENTS, UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF THE TEACHER, WILL BE ORGANIZED INTO PROJECT TEAMS AND EACH GROUP WILL BE ASSIGNED A PROJECT TO BE DEVELOPED FROM SCRATCH AND TO BE DELIVERED BY THE END OF THE COURSE.
EACH GROUP, STARTING FROM A REAL CONTEXT, WILL PROCEED TO
• ANALYZE THE REQUIREMENTS AND DESIGN A DATABASE (ER)
• ANALYZE AND RESTRUCTURE THE ER DIAGRAM
• TRANSFORM THE ER DIAGRAM INTO TABLES
• ANALYZE AND RESTRUCTURE THE TABLES
• NORMALIZE THE SET OF TABLES
EACH TEAM WILL BE FOLLOWED BY THE TEACHER IN THE PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS, WITH BIWEEKLY MEETINGS.
ONCE THE WORK IS FINISHED, EACH TEAM WILL DISCUSS THEIR PROJECT WITH THE TEACHER.
Verification of learning
THE ACHIEVEMENT OF THE OBJECTIVES OF THE COURSE IS CERTIFIED BY PASSING AN EXAM WITH EVALUATION IN THIRTIES.
THE EXAM MUST VERIFY THAT THE STUDENT HAS ACQUIRED THE KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS ON EACH OF THE TWO MODULES OF THE COURSE; FOR EACH MODULE THE STUDENT MUST SHOW THAT HE KNOWS THE CONCEPTS "THEORETICALLY" AND THAT HE IS ABLE TO APPLY THE RELATIVE TECHNIQUES "PRACTICALLY".
THEREFORE, THE EXAM PRESENTS A "PRACTICAL" TEST, DIVIDED INTO 2 SUB-PARTS, (MODULE 1), A "DESIGN" TEST, DIVIDED INTO 2 SUB-PARTS, (MODULE 2) AND A VERIFICATION OF THE "THEORETICAL" KNOWLEDGE ON CONCEPTS OF MODULES 1 AND 2.
BOTH THE THEORETICAL TEST AND EACH OF THE SUB-PARTS HAVE A MINIMUM THRESHOLD OF SUFFICIENCY, BELOW WHICH THE ENTIRE EXAM IS NOT PASSED, EVEN IF THE INSUFFICIENCY CONCERNS ONLY ONE OF THEM.

THE EXAM TAKES PLACE, UNLESS OTHERWISE COMMUNICATED BY THE TEACHER OR BY THE OFFICES, IN THE DEPARTMENT'S MULTIMEDIA EDUCATIONAL LABORATORY (BUILDING B2, ENTRANCE 14, GROUND FLOOR) ON THE DAY AND TIME SET FOR THE SESSION AND BEGINS FOR EVERYONE AT THE SAME TIME. WITH THE CONDUCT OF THE TESTS. IT IS THEREFORE ESSENTIAL TO RESPECT THE MEETING TIME. AT THE END OF THE TESTS IN THE CLASSROOM, THE TEACHER SHOWS THE SOLUTIONS AND COMMUNICATES THE DAY AND TIME IN WHICH THE FINAL EXAM OPERATIONS WILL BE HELD. BY THE END OF THIS FIRST PHASE, THE STUDENT, AFTER HAVING READ THE SOLUTIONS OF THE TESTS, CAN RENOUNCE HAVING THE TESTS DELIVERED, DECIDING TO WITHDRAW.

THE FINAL OPERATIONS OF THE EXAM CONSIST IN THE VISION AND DISCUSSION OF THE PAPERS AND IN A POSSIBLE SUPPLEMENTARY INTERVIEW, FOR THOSE WHOSE TESTS ARE NOT SERIOUSLY INSUFFICIENT. THIS INTERVIEW COULD MODIFY, IN MORE OR IN LESS, THE EVALUATION OF THE TESTS THEMSELVES IN THE PRESENCE (OR IN THE ABSENCE) OF THE CLARIFICATIONS AND / OR FURTHER INFORMATION AND ADDITIONS REQUESTED BY THE TEACHER. THE STUDENT MUST NECESSARILY PARTICIPATE IN THE FINAL MEETING, OTHERWISE IT IS CONSIDERED INSUFFICIENT, IF THE TESTS DELIVERED WERE INSUFFICIENT, OR WITHDRAWN, IF THE TESTS DELIVERED WERE SUFFICIENT.

IN DETAIL:
THEORETICAL TEST (MODULES 1 AND 2): "THEORETICAL" TOPICS OF THE ENTIRE COURSE.
TEST SCORE: UP TO 8 POINTS, SUFFICIENT TO 5.

PRACTICAL TEST (MODULE 1): THE STUDENT HAS TO DEVELOP A SMALL DBMS APPLICATION
• STRUCTURE (UP TO 4 POINTS, WITH ENOUGH TO 2.5) CREATE STRUCTURES (TABLES, FORMS, REPORTS, ETC.), ASSIGNING THEM THE CORRECT PROPERTIES AND POPULATE THE DB
• SQL (UP TO 8 POINTS, WITH ENOUGH TO 4); MAKING QUERIES IN SQL

DESIGN TEST (MODULE 2):
THE STUDENT HAS TO DESIGN A SMALL DATABASE, STARTING FROM A SET OF REQUIREMENTS INDICATED IN THE OUTLINE.
• CONCEPTUAL DESIGN (ER) (8 POINTS, WITH A SCORE OF 4.5):
• LOGICAL DESIGN (TRANSFORMATION OF THE RE INTO A RELATIONAL ONE) (4 POINTS WITH A SUFFICIENCY OF 2)

MAXIMUM TIME AVAILABLE TO COMPLETE THE TESTS: 120 MINUTES. NORMALLY THE OPERATIONS END ON THE SAME DAY THAT THE APPEAL BEGAN.
IT IS REITERATED THAT THE EXAM MUST BE TAKEN IN FULL IN A SINGLE APPEAL. THIS MEANS THAT THE EVIDENCE IS NOT CONSERVATIVE: IN ONE APPEAL IT IS NOT POSSIBLE TO RELY ON PASSED EVIDENCE IN OTHER APPEALS.
Texts
•P. ATZENI, S. CERI, P. FRATERNALI, S. PARABOSCHI, R. TORLONE, “BASI DI DATI – MODELLI E LINGUAGGI DI INTERROGAZIONE 4° EDIZIONE”, MCGRAW-HILL EDUCATION (ITALY) SRL, ISBN 978-8838668005
•(ALTERNATIVELY) P. ATZENI, S. CERI, P. FRATERNALI, S. PARABOSCHI, R. TORLONE, “BASI DI DATI - 5° EDIZIONE”, MCGRAW-HILL EDUCATION (ITALY) SRL,, ISBN 978-8838694455
• (FOR CONSULTATION AND / OR STUDY) R. ELMASRI, S. NAVATHE: “SISTEMI DI BASI DI DATI, FONDAMENTI - 6° EDIZIONE”, PEARSON ITALIA, ISBN 978-88-719-2628-5

More Information
ON THE TEACHER'S WEBSITE (HTTP://DOCENTI.UNISA.IT/000794/HOME), SLIDES AND OTHER ONLINE RESOURCES ARE AVAILABLE
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