MECHANICS AND THERMODYNAMICS LABORATORY

Fisica MECHANICS AND THERMODYNAMICS LABORATORY

0512600038
DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS "E. R. CAIANIELLO"
EQF6
PHYSICS
2022/2023

OBBLIGATORIO
YEAR OF COURSE 1
YEAR OF DIDACTIC SYSTEM 2017
FULL ACADEMIC YEAR
CFUHOURSACTIVITY
864LESSONS
448LAB
ExamDate
APPELLO DI FEBBRAIO 202310/02/2023 - 10:00
Objectives
THE COURSE PROVIDES AN INTROCUTION TO THE APPLICATION OF THE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD, TO THE THEORY OF MEASUREMENT ERRORS AND TO THE LAWS OF GEOMETRICAL OPTICS.

KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
THE COURSE AIMS TO PROVIDE A KNOWLEDGE OF THE METHODS OF EXPERIMENTAL DATA ANALYSIS AND OF THE LAWS OF GEOMETRICAL OPTICS. IN PARTICULAR THE STUDENTS WILL LEARN METHODS FOR EVALUATING THE UNCERTAINTY IN MEASUREMENTS AND ITS STATISTICAL TREATMENT. THROUGH DIFFERENT LABORATORY EXPERIENCES. THE COURSE ALSO PROVIDE SKILLS ON THE USE OF INSTRUMENTS FOR FUNDAMENTAL MEASURES IN ADDITION TO THE PROBLEMS RELATING TO THE MEASUREMENT OPERATIONS.

ABILITY KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
THE STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO PERFORM EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SIMPLE PHENOMENA IN MECHANICS, THERMOLOGY AND GEOMETRICAL OPTICS., HAVING ACHIEVED ADEQUATE THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE. THE STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO USE LABORATORY TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT, TO ORGANIZE THE MEASUREMENT OPERATIONS EFFICIENTLY AND TO CORRECTLY ANALYZE THE EXPERIMENTAL DATA, ALSO IDENTIFYING THE LIMITS OF VALIDITY.
Prerequisites
ELEMENTARY CALCULUS.
Contents
THEORY
SCIENTIFIC METHOD. DIGITAL AND ANALOG MEASURING INSTRUMENTS: SENSITIVITY, RESOLUTION, PRECISION, ACCURACY. ABSOLUTE AND RELATIVE ERROR. CASUAL ERRORS, SYSTEMATIC ERRORS. REPRESENTATION OF THE MEASURES. MAXIMUM ERROR. ESTIMATE OF UNCERTAINTY WITH NON-STATISTICAL METHODS. PROPAGATION OF UNCERTAINTY: APPROXIMATION WITH DIFFERENTIALS. TABLES, GRAPHS AND THE METHOD OF LEAST SQUARES: NON-STATISTICAL TREATMENT. DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS: POSITION AND DISPERSION PARAMETERS. FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION AND HISTOGRAMS. (12 HOURS) PROBABILITY: CLASSICAL AND STATISTICAL DEFINITION, AXIOMATIC DEFINITION, PRINCIPLE OF TOTAL PROBABILITIES, CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY, INDEPENDENT EVENTS. BAYES THEOREM. CALCOLO COMBINATORIO
DISTRIBUTION OF DISCRETE AND CONTINUOUS RANDOM VARIABLES. (10 HOURS) THE EXPECTED VALUE AND STANDARD DEVIATION, COVARIANCE. MOMENTS OF A DISTRIBUTION AND THEIR PROPERTY. CHEBYSHEV INEQUALITY. BERNOULLI VARIABLES. BINOMIAL DISTRIBUTION. POISSON DISTRIBUTION. (10 HOURS)
CONTINUOUS RANDOM VARIABLES, PROBABILITY DENSITY FUNCTION, MOMENTS. UNIFORM DISTRIBUTION, CUMULATIVE FUNCTION. NORMAL DISTRIBUTION, STANDARD VARIABLE, CONFIDENCE INTERVAL AND LEVEL OF CONFIDENCE. PROBABILITY DENSITY FUNCTION: EXAMPLES. DISTRIBUTION OF THE MEAN AND THE CENTRAL LIMIT THEOREM. (10 HOURS) ESTIMATING THE VALUES OF PARAMETERS. INTRODUCTION TO POINT ESTIMATE: UNBIASED, MINIMAL VARIANCE AND ROBUST ESTIMATORS. THE MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY ESTIMATED FROM A STATISTICAL APPROACH. COMBINED UNCERTAINTY EVALUATED STATISTICALLY. BEST ESTIMATE FROM MEASUREMENTS WITH DIFFERENT UNCERTAINTY.COMBINATION OF MEASUREMENT WHOSE UNCERTAINTY WAS ESTIMATED WITH BOTH STATISTICAL AND NON-STATISTICAL METHODS.
THE METHOD OF LEAST SQUARES. CHI-SQUARE TEST: EXAMPLES (10 HOURS) THE GEOMETRIC OPTICS APPROXIMATION, WAVES, WAVELENGHT AND PERIOD, THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM. LAWS OF GEOMETRIC OPTICS, REFLECTION AND REFRACTION, RECTILINEAR PROPAGATION OF LIGHT. FERMAT'S PRINCIPLE. OPTICAL SYSTEMS. CONJUGATE POINTS. FOCAL LENGHTS. REFRACTION PLANE. PRISM. MIRRORS. REFRACTION SPHERICAL SURFACE. THICK AND THIN LENS. CONVERGING AND DIVERGING LENS. PRINCIPAL PLANES. LINEAR AND ANGULAR MAGNIFICATION. OPTICAL ABERRATION. OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS: MICROSCOPE AND TELESCOPE (12 HOURS)

LABORATORY:(48 HOURS)
1)MEASUREMENTS OF THE DENSITY OF A MATERIAL
2)MEASUREMENT OF A GAUSSIAN VARIABLE
3)MEASUREMENT OF THE OSCILLATION PERIOD OF A SIMPLE PENDULUM
4)MEASUREMENT OF THE GRAVITATIONAL ACCELERATION CONSTANT FROM THE OSCILLATION PERIOD OF A SIMPLE PENDULUM
5)MEASUREMENT OF THE GRAVITATIONAL ACCELERATION CONSTANT WITH AN INCLINED PLANE
6)STATIC AND DYNAMIC METHOD TO MEASURE THE ELASTIC CONSTANT OF A SPRING
7) METHODS TO MEASURE THE MOMENTUM OF INERTIA OF A CYLINDER
8)MEASUREMENT OF THE STATIC FRICTION COEFFICIENT.
9) MEASUREMENT OF THE COEFFICIENT OF VISCOSITY OF A FLUID
10)MEASUREMENT OF FOCAL LENGTH OF THIN LENS.
11)MEASUREMENTS OF REFRACTION INDEX OF WATER.
12)MEASUREMENTS OF DEVIATION ANGLE IN PRISM.
13)MEASUREMENTS OF SPECIFIC HEAT OF METAL.
14)MEASUREMENTS OF CONVERSION FACTOR JOULE/CALORIE
15)STUDY OF GAS LAWS BY USING A GAS THERMOMETER.
Teaching Methods
THE TEACHING IS ORGANISED IN LECTURES AND LABORATORY ACTIVITIES
-LECTURES ON THE TOPICS OF THE TEACHING;
-LABORATORY ACTIVITIES RELATED TO THE TOPICS OF THE TEACHING. STUDENTS WILL BE ORGANIZED INTO GROUPS (3-4 STUDENTS EACH). FOR EVERY ACTIVITY THE GROUP MUST SUBMIT A REPORT WHICH INCLUDES THE OBJECTIVES, METHODOLOGY AND EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS, DATA COLLECTED AND RELATED ANALYSIS.
Verification of learning
DURING THE COURSE, GROUPS OF STUDENTS PREPARE A REPORT FOR EACH LABORATORY EXPERIENCE. IN THE REPORT, THE EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS AND METHODS WILL BE DESCRIBED. IN PARTICULAR, THE EXPERIMENTAL DATA ORGANIZED IN TABLES AND GRAPHICS, THE DATA ANALYSIS, THE DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS AND THE RELATED CONCLUSIONS WILL BE INCLUDE IN THE REPORT. THE REPORT WILL BE USED TO ASSESS THE OPERATIONAL SKILLS IN THE EXECUTION OF EXPERIMENTS AND IN THE APPLICATION OF METHODS OF EXPERIMENTAL DATA ANALISIS. TO BE ADMITTED TO THE FINAL EXAM, THE STUDENT MUST SUBMIT AT LEAST 80% OF THE REQUIRED REPORTS AND HAVE ATTENDED AT LEAST 80% OF THE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES.
THE EXAM INCLUDES A WRITTEN AND AN ORAL TEST. TO BE ADMITTED TO THE ORAL TEST, AT LEAST THE MINIMUN LEVEL 18/30 OF EVALUATION IS NEEDED FOR THE REPORTS AND FOR THE WRITTEN TEST.
- THE WRITTEN TEST IS INTENDED TO ASSESS THE ABILITY IN THE SOLUTION OF SIMPLE PROBLEMS OF THE EXPERIMENTAL DATA ANALYSIS, PROBABILITY, STATISTICS AND GEOMETRICAL OPTICS.
- THE ORAL EXAM INCLUDES A DISCUSSION ON THE REPORTS OF THE LABORATORY ACTIVITIES TO VERIFY THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES, THE LEVEL OF THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE, THE AUTONOMY OF ANALYSIS AS WELL AS THE CLARITY IN THE PRESENTATION OF THE TOPICS.
EVALUATION OF THE TESTS TAKES INTO ACCOUNT THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE METHODS USED, THE COMPLETENESS AND ACCURACY OF THE ANSWERS, AS WELL AS THE CLARITY IN THE PRESENTATION. THE FINAL EVALUATION, EXPRESSED IN “30ESIMI” WITH POSSIBLE “LAUDE”, IS OBTAINED AS AN AVERAGE OF THE EVALUATIONS OF THE TESTS.
THE MINIMUM EVALUATION LEVEL (18) IS ASSIGNED WHEN THE STUDENT SHOWS UNCERTAINTIES IN THE APPLICATION OF EXPERIMENTAL DATA ANALYSIS METHODS AND HAS A LIMITED KNOWLEDGE OF THE TOPICS COVERED IN THE COURSE.
THE MAXIMUM LEVEL (30) IS ATTRIBUTED WHEN THE STUDENT SHOWS A COMPLETE AND IN-DEPTH KNOWLEDGE OF THE TOPICS AND THE EXPERIMETAL METHODS.
“CUM LAUDE” IS GIVEN WHEN THE CANDIDATE SHOWS SIGNIFICANT COMPETENCE IN THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTALS CONTENTS AND SHOWS ABILITY TO PRESENT THE TOPICS WITH PROPER LANGUAGE AND CRITICAL KNOWLEDGE.
IF THE STUDENT HAS NOT REACHED 80% OF THE PRESENCE FOR THE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES, AN INTEGRATIVE LABORATORY PRACTICE TEST IS PROVIDED IN ORDER TO ACCESS THE EXAM. DURING THE TEST THE STUDENT IS ASSIGNED AN EXPERIMENT TO BE PERFORMED IN THE LABORATORY USING THE INSTRUMENTS PROVIDED BY THE TEACHER. THE STUDENT WILL HAVE TO PERFORM THE EXPERIMENT AND DELIVER THE RELATIVE REPORT. THE TEST IS INTENDED TO BE PASSED IF A MINIMUM EVALUATION OF 18/30 IS REPORTED.
TO BE ADMITTED TO THE FINAL EXAM, THE STUDENT MUST SUBMIT AT LEAST
IF THE REPORTS SUBMITTED BY THE STUDENT ARE LESS THAN 80% OF THE REQUIRED REPORTS AND/OR THE ATTENDANCE OF THE STUDENT TO THE PRACTICAL LABORATORY ACTIVITIES IS LESS THAN 80% OF THE LABORATORY EXPERIENCES, AN INTEGRATIVE PRACTICAL TEST MUST BE PERFORMED BY THE STUDENT IN ORDER TO BE ADMITTED TO THE FINAL EXAM. DURING THE INTEGRATIVE PRACTICAL TEST, AN EXPERIMENT IS ASSIGNED TO THE STUDENT. THE STUDENT WILL HAVE TO PERFORM THE EXPERIMENT IN THE LABORATORY USING THE INSTRUMENTS PROVIDED BY THE TEACHER AND MUST PREPARE THE RELATIVE REPORT. THE TEST IS PASSED IF THE MINIMUM LEVEL OF EVALUATION (18/30) IS REPORTED.
Texts
G. CANNELLI, "METODOLOGIE SPERIMENTALI IN FISICA", EDISES (NAPOLI)
J.R. TAYLOR, "INTRODUZIONE ALL'ANALISI DEGLI ERRORI SPERIMENTALI", ZANICHELLI (BOLOGNA)
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