ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS AND OPTICS LABORATORY

Fisica ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS AND OPTICS LABORATORY

0512600039
DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS "E. R. CAIANIELLO"
EQF6
PHYSICS
2022/2023

OBBLIGATORIO
YEAR OF COURSE 2
YEAR OF DIDACTIC SYSTEM 2017
FULL ACADEMIC YEAR
CFUHOURSACTIVITY
432LESSONS
896LAB
Objectives
THE COURSE PROVIDES THE THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL SKILLS NEEDED FOR THE DC AND AC ANALYSIS OF CIRCUITS. IT COVERS MORE ADVANCED MATHEMATICAL TECHNIQUES SUCH AS THE LAPLACE AND THE FOURIER TRANSFORM. MOST OF THE COURSE IS DEDICATED TO THE DESIGN, THE MULTISIM SIMULATION AND THE REALIZATION AND MEASUREMENT OF SPECIFIC CIRCUITS IN THE LABORATORY. FURTHERMORE, THE COURSE FAMILIARIZES THE STUDENTS WITH ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AS WELL AS INTERFERENCE AND DIFFRACTION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES BY MEANS OF LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS.

KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
THE COURSE AIMS AT PROVIDING THE STUDENTS WITH THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE TECHNIQUES USED FOR THE DC, TRANSIENT AND AC ANALYSIS OF ELECTRIC CIRCUITS; IT INTRODUCES MATHEMATICAL TOOLS SUCH AS THE LAPLACE AND FOURIER TRANSFORMS, AND GET THE STUDENT STARTED WITH THE MULTISIM SIMULATOR. THE COURSE DEVELOPS THE ABILITY TO MEASURE CIRCUITS ELECTRICAL PARAMETERS AND OF FITTING THE EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS WITH SUITABLE MATHEMATICAL MODELS. FURTHERMORE, IT ENHANCES THE COMPREHENSION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION PHENOMENA AS WELL AS OF THE INTERFERENCE AND THE DIFFRACTION OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES BY MEANS OF LABORATORY PRACTICE.

APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
AT THE CONCLUSION OF THE COURSE, THE STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO USE EQUIPMENT FOR ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS, CORRELATE INPUT AND OUTPUT SIGNALS IN LINEAR CIRCUITS, DESIGN AND ANALYZE LINEAR CIRCUITS BY USING MATHEMATICAL TECHNIQUES AND SIMULATION SOFTWARES. IN THIS COURSE, THE STUDENTS LEARN THE MATHEMATICAL SKILLS AND THE FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRIC CIRCUITS THEORY NEEDED TO FACE THE CHALLENGES OF NEXT LEVEL COURSES ON ANALOG AND DIGITAL ELECTRONICS. FINALLY, THE STUDENT WILL BE ABLE TO READ TECHNICAL PAPERS DEALING WITH LINEAR ELECTRIC CIRCUITS.
Prerequisites
THE COURSE ASSUMES THE KNOWLEDGE OF BASIC TRIGONOMETRY, ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY, COMPLEX NUMBERS, AND CALCULUS FOR FUNCTIONS OF A SINGLE VARIABLE. SOME BACKGROUND IN ELECTROMAGNETISM AND WAVE OPTICS, LEARNED IN HIGH SCHOOL OR AT THE CONCURRENT COURSE OF GENERAL PHYSICS II, IS HIGHLY HELPFUL.
Contents
1. BASIC CONCEPTS (LECTURE 2H): CHARGE AND CURRENT; VOLTAGE; POWER AND ENERGY; NODES, BRANCHES AND LOOPS; KIRCHHOFF’ S LAWS.
2. SIMPLE CIRCUIT ELEMENTS (LECTURE 2H): ACTIVE SOURCES; OHM’S LAW; SERIES AND PARALLEL RESISTORS.
3. CIRCUIT THEOREMS (LECTURE 2H): SOURCE TRANSFORMATION; THEVENIN’S THEOREM; NORTON’S THEOREM.
4. METHODS OF ANALYSIS (LECTURE 4H): NODAL, MESH AND LOOP ANALYSIS;
5. CAPACITORS AND INDUCTORS (LECTURE 2H).
6. FIRST-ORDER CIRCUITS (LECTURE 4H): THE SOURCE-FREE RC AND RL CIRCUIT; STEP RESPONSE OF RC AND RL CIRCUITS; IMPULSE RESPONSE OF RC.
7. SECOND-ORDER CIRCUITS (LECTURE 4H): SERIES AND PARALLEL RLC CIRCUIT; STEP RESPONSE OF RLC CIRCUIT; COUPLED LC OSCILLATORS.
8. SINUSOIDAL STEADY-STATE ANALYSIS (LECTURE 4H): SINUSOIDS; PHASORS; IMPEDANCE; NODAL AND MESH ANALYSIS.
9. AC POWER ANALYSIS (LECTURE 2H): INSTANTANEOUS AND AVERAGE POWER; EFFECTIVE OR RMS VALUE; POWER FACTOR.

10. MAGNETICALLY COUPLED CIRCUITS (LECTURE 2H): MUTUAL INDUCTANCE; IDEAL TRANSFORMERS; IMPEDANCE TRANSFORMER.
11. FREQUENCY RESPONSE (LECTURE 4H): TRANSFER FUNCTION; THE DECIBEL SCALE; BODE PLOTS; SERIES AND PARALLEL RESONANCE; PASSIVE FILTERS.
12. THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM (LECTURE 4H): PROPERTIES OF THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM; THE INVERSE LAPLACE TRANSFORM; THE CONVOLUTION INTEGRAL AND IMPULSE REPONSE.
13. THE FOURIER SERIES AND TRANSFORM (LECTURE 4H): FOURIER SERIES; DISCRETE FOURIER TRANSFORM; FAST FOURIER TRANSFORM; SAMPLING THEOREM.
14. STOCHASTIC SIGNALS AND ELECTRICAL NOISE (LECTURE 4H): CORRELATION AND SPECTRAL DENSITY; THERMAL, SHOT, 1/F, AND RTN NOISES.
15. TRANSMISSION LINES (LECTURE 2H): CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDANCE; REFLECTION COEFFICIENT; IMPEDANCE TRANSFORMATION; LAMBDA/2 RESONATORS.
16. INTERFERENCE (LECTURE 2H): TWO-SOURCE INTERFERENCE; YOUNG EXPERIMENT; MICHELSON INTERFEROMETER; INTERFERENCE IN THIN FILMS.
17. DIFFRACTION (LECTURE 2H): THE DIFFRACTION FROM A SINGLE SLIT; RESOLVING POWER OF A LENS.
18. INTERFERENCE AND DIFFRACTION (LECTURE 4H): DOUBLE SLIT; MULTIPLE SLITS AND DIFFACTION GRATING; SPECTROPHOTOMETER.
19. POLARIZATION (LECTURE 2H): POLARIZATION; POLARIZATION BY REFLECTION; POLARIZERS; MALUS LAW.

LABORATORY ACTIVITY
1. INTRODUCTION TO USE OF MULTIMETERS, OSCILLOSCOPE AND FUNCTION GENERATOR (4H);
2. MEASUREMENT OF THE INTERNAL RESISTANCE OF A VOLTAGE GENERATOR (4H);
3. INTRODUCTION TO MULTISIM IN DC ANALYSIS OF RESISTIVE NETWORKS (4H);
4. RC SERIES CIRCUIT PART A: MEASURE OF STEP, RECTANGULAR PULSE AND IMPULSE RESPONSE; RC AS INTEGRATOR AND DIFFERENTIATOR (4H);
5. RC SERIES CIRCUIT PART B: SIMULATION OF STEP, RECTANGULAR PULSE AND IMPULSE RESPONSE; RC AS INTEGRATOR AND DIFFERENTIATOR (4H);
6. RLC SERIES CIRCUIT TRANSIENT: MEASURE OF STEP AND RECTANGULAR PULSE RESPONSE (4H);
7. MEASURE OF TRANSIENT IN CAPACITIVELY COULPED LC CIRCUITS (4H);
8. RL AND RC SERIES CIRCUIT: FREQUENCY RESPONSE AND THEIR USE AS PASSIVE FILTERS (4H);
9. RLC SERIES CIRCUIT: FREQUENCY RESPONSE (RESONANCE) AND THEIR USE AS FILTERS (4H);
10. FOURIER SPECTRA IN CIRCUITS (4H);
11. CHARACTERIZATION OF ELECTRICAL NOISE OF A RESISTOR (4H);
12. TRANSMISSION LINES: REFLECTION OF IMPULSIVE SIGNAL ; LAMBDA/2 RESONATOR (4H);
13. DIFFRACTION AND INTERFERENCE PATTERNS FROM SINGLE SLIT, DOUBLE SLIT AND GRATINGS IN VISIBLE LASER LIGHT (4H);
14. SPECTROPHOTOMETER AND LINE SPECTRA OF SEVERAL SPECTRAL LAMPS (4H);
15. MALUS LAW WITH POLARIZER-ANALYZER FILTERS AND LASER (4H).
Teaching Methods
LECTURES (56 H, 7 CFU) AND LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS (60 H, 5 CFU).

THE LECTURES COVER THE DIFFERENT TOPICS OF THE COURSE BY INTRODUCING PROBLEMS OF INCREASING NOVELTY AND COMPLEXITY. THE LECTURES INCLUDE EXAMPLES AND EXERCISES TO CONSOLIDATE THE STUDENTS’ UNDERSTANDING. THE LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS AIM TO TRAIN THE STUDENTS ON THE USE OF ELECTRIC EQUIPMENT AND ON THE APPLICATION OF EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES SUITABLE FOR ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. THE LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS ARE DEDICATED TO SPECIFIC TOPICS COVERED BY THE COURSE, AS DETAILED IN THE CONTENTS SECTION. THE LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS, CARRIED OUT BY GROUPS OF 3-4 STUDENTS, ARE PERFORMED UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF THE INSTRUCTOR, WHO GUIDES THE STUDENTS TO DEVELOP THE ABILITY TO IDENTIFY THE BEST TECHNIQUES AND PRACTICE FOR SPECIFIC APPLICATIONS. FOR EACH EXPERIMENT, THE STUDENTS WILL BE ENCOURAGED TO REPORT THEIR WORK AND RESULTS IN AN ARTICLE-STYLE MANUSCRIPT, FOLLOWING THE TEMPLATE AND GUIDELINES OF A TYPICAL INTERNATIONAL PHYSICS JOURNAL.
Verification of learning
THE ASSESSMENT OF THE LEVEL OF LEARNING REQUIRES A WRITTEN REPORT FOR EACH LABORATORY EXPERIMENT AND A FINAL EXAM CONSISTING OF AN ORAL DISCUSSION. THE LABORATORY REPORTS ARE MADE BY GROUPS OF 3-4 STUDENTS. IT IS MANDATORY TO PERFORM AT LEAST THE 80% OF THE LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS TO ATTEND THE FINAL EXAM.
THE LABORATORY REPORTS AIM TO DEVELOP THE ABILITY REQUIRED TO ANY PHYSICIST TO WRITE THE DETAILS OF THE WORK, THE TECHNIQUES AND THE RESULTS OBTAINED IN THE LABORATORY, AS WELL AS TO MONITOR THE PROGRESS OF THE STUDENTS. THE LABORATORY REPORTS ARE SCORED WITH THE MAXIMUM 30 CUM LAUDE.
THE ORAL DISCUSSION, IN WHICH THE STUDENT MIGHT BE ASKED TO STUDY A SPECIFIC CIRCUIT OR A DIFFRACTION/INTERFERENCE PHENOMENON, IS AIMED TO CHECK THE LEVEL OF THEORETICAL UNDERSTANDING, THE ANALYTICAL ABILITY AND THE PRESENTATION SKILLS OF THE STUDENT.
THE ASSESSMENT CONSIDERS HOW EFFECTIVE ARE THE METHODS, HOW COMPLETE AND SOUND ARE THE REPLIES AND HOW CLEAR IS THE PRESENTATION.
THE MINIMUM SCORE IS 18 AND IS ATTRIBUTED WHEN THE STUDENT SHOWS INCERTITUDE IN THE APPLICATION OF THE METHODS TO CALCULATE CIRCUITS PARAMETERS OR HAS A LIMITED BUT ENOUGH KNOWLEDGE OF THE TOPIC COVERED BY THE COURSE.
THE MAXIMUM SCORE IS 30 AND IS ATTRIBUTED WHEN THE STUDENT SHOWS EXCELLENT AND COMPLETE KNOWLEDGE OF ELECTRIC CIRCUITS AND THE WAVE OPTICS, COMBINED WITH THE CAPABILITY TO INTERCONNECT DIFFERENT TOPICS.
THE FINAL SCORE, UP TO 30 CUM LAUDE, COMBINES THE SCORES OF THE LABORATORY-EXPERIMENTS REPORTS, OF THE WRITTEN TEST AND OF THE ORAL DISCUSSION IN AN APPROPRIATE WAY. THE LAUDE IS RESERVED FOR STUDENTS WHO SHOW AN OUTSTANDING MASTERING OF THE LABORATORY PRACTICE, THE CIRCUIT ANALYSIS AND THE WAVE OPTICS.
Texts
-) C. K. ALEXANDER & M. SADIKU, "FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRIC CIRCUITS - 5TH ED.", MCGRAW-HILL EDUCATION, 2013.

-) HALLIDAY RESNIK KRANE, FISICA 2
-) MENCUCCINI SILVESTRINI, FISICA 2, LIGUORI

-) COURSE SLIDES AND SHEETS CARAPELLA (PPT, PDF)
More Information
THE ATTENDANCE OF THE COURSE, ALTHOUGH NOT MANDATORY, IS STRONGLY RECOMMENDED ESPECIALLY FOR THE LABORATORY ACTIVITIES.

TEACHER'S E-MAIL ADDRESS:
GCARAPELLA@UNISA.IT
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