NANOELECTRONICS

Fisica NANOELECTRONICS

0522600055
DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS "E. R. CAIANIELLO"
EQF7
PHYSICS
2022/2023

YEAR OF COURSE 2
YEAR OF DIDACTIC SYSTEM 2021
AUTUMN SEMESTER
CFUHOURSACTIVITY
648LESSONS
ExamDate
APPELLO DI FEBBRAIO 202313/02/2023 - 10:00
APPELLO DI FEBBRAIO 202313/02/2023 - 10:00
Objectives
THE COURSE AIMS TO PROVIDE THE STUDENTS WITH A THOROUGH KNOWLEDGE OF THE PHYSICS AND TECHNOLOGY OF MODERN SEMICONDUCTOR ELECTRONIC DEVICES OF NANOMETRIC SIZE.

KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
THIS COURSE IS A THOROUGH STUDY OF THE ELECTRONIC, OPTOELECTRONIC, AND TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF SEMICONDUCTING MATERIALS; IT EXTENSIVELY DEALS WITH MODERN DIODES, TRANSISTORS, AND MEMORIES, THEIR FABRICATION, AND THEIR USAGE IN MODERN INTEGRATED CIRCUITS. THE COURSE COVERS CARRIER TRANSPORT IN MONO- AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL NANOSTRUCTURED MATERIALS (NANOWIRES, NANOTUBES, GRAPHENE, AND OTHER 2D MATERIALS) AS WELL AS MICROWAVE AND PHOTONIC DEVICES (PHOTODETECTORS, LASERS, AND SOLAR CELLS).
STUDENTS WILL BE AWARE OF THE SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHALLENGES PRESENTED BY THE CONTINUOUS SIZE SCALING AND THE CURRENT TRENDS IN NANOELECTRONICS.
THE ENERGY BAND MODEL WILL BE CONSTANTLY USED TO PREDICT OR EXPLAIN THE ELECTRICAL AND OPTICAL BEHAVIOR OF SCHOTTKY/PN DIODES AND FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTORS. THE COURSE CAN INCLUDE A LABORATORY PART IN WHICH STATE-OF-ART TECHNIQUES AND TOOLS ARE USED FOR ELECTRO-OPTICAL DEVICE CHARACTERIZATION.

APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
WITH THIS COURSE THE STUDENTS ACQUIRE THE KNOWLEDGE AND THE SKILLS NEEDED TO PERFORM RESEARCH ACTIVITIES IN MICRO/NANO-ELECTRONIC LABORATORIES OR TO WORK IN A SEMICONDUCTOR INDUSTRY. STUDENTS GET ACQUAINTED WITH THE USE OF THE BAND MODEL TO DISCUSS THE PHYSICS OF ELECTRONIC DEVICES AND WITH TRANSPORT PHENOMENA IN NANOSCALE DEVICES. FURTHERMORE, STUDENTS ARE ABLE TO UNDERSTAND THE SPECIALIZED SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE.

AUTONOMOUS JUDGEMENT
THE STUDENT IS ABLE TO IDENTIFY THE BEST PARAMETERS AND METHODS TO USE FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF ELECTRONIC DEVICES. HE/SHE CAN APPLY THE BAND MODEL TO UNDERSTAND THE OPTOELECTRONIC PHENOMENA OCCURRING IN MICRO- AND NANO-DEVICES. THE STUDENT IS ABLE TO EVALUATE OR PROPOSE MODELS TO EXPLAIN EXPERIMENTAL OBSERVATIONS.

COMMUNICATION ABILITY
THE STUDENT IS ABLE TO PRESENT, IN A CLEAR AND PROPER WAY, HOW AN ELECTRONIC DEVICE WORKS AND WHICH ARE THE UNDERLYING PHYSICAL PROCESSES.

LEARNING CAPABILITY
THE STUDENT IS ABLE TO APPLY THE ACQUIRED KNOWLEDGE TO UNDERSTAND THE OPTOELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF DEVICES NOT TREATED IN THE COURSE. HE/SHE IS ABLE TO DEVELOP A MODEL TO EXPLAIN NEW EXPERIMENTAL OBSERVATIONS.
Prerequisites
THE PREREQUISITE FOR THE COURSE IS THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE GENERAL PHYSICS (MECHANICS AND ELECTROMAGNETISM) AND THE CALCULUS. FUNDAMENTALS OF QUANTUM MECHANICS AND CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS ARE NEEDED AS WELL.

Contents
LECTURES (48 H)

ENERGY BANDS AND CHARGE CARRIER CONCENTRATION IN THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM (4H)
SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS. BASIC CRYSTAL STRUCTURES. ENERGY BANDS. DONORS AND ACCEPTORS. FERMI’S FUNCTION. DENSITY OF STATES. CHARGE CARRIER CONCENTRATION.

CARRIER TRANSPORT PHENOMENA (4H)
CARRIER DRIFT. CARRIER DIFFUSION. SCATTERING MECHANISMS. GENERATION AND RECOMBINATION. CONTINUITY EQUATION. TUNNELING. FIELD EMISSION. SPACE CHARGE EFFECT. THERMIONIC EMISSION. HIGH-FIELD EFFECTS.

QUANTUM TRANSPORT (3H)
WAVE FUNCTION APPROACH. LANDAUER’S APPROACH. PN JUNCTION DIODE.

METAL-SEMICONDUCTOR CONTACTS (3H)
BASIC CHARACTERISTICS. SCHOTTKY BARRIER. FERMI LEVEL PINNING. CURRENT TRANSPORT PROCESSES. THERMIONIC-EMISSION THEORY. OHMIC CONTACTS. HETEROJUNCTIONS.

LIGHT-EMITTING DIODES AND LASERS (2H)
RADIATIVE TRANSITIONS AND OPTICAL ABSORPTION. LIGHT-EMITTING DIODES. VARIOUS LIGHT-EMITTING DIODES. SEMICONDUCTOR LASERS.

PHOTODETECTORS AND SOLAR CELLS (2H)
PHOTODETECTORS. SOLAR CELLS. SILICON AND COMPOUND-SEMICONDUCTOR SOLAR CELLS. THIRD-GENERATION SOLAR CELLS. OPTICAL CONCENTRATION.

MOS STRUCTURE (4H)
MOS EQUATIONS. ANALYSIS OF THE SPACE CHARGE REGION. STRONG INVERSION. THRESHOLD VOLTAGE. C-V CHARACTERISTICS. QUANTUM EFFECTS ON THE MOS C-V CHARACTERISTICS

MOS FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTOR (3H)
MOSFET OPERATIONS. CURRENT-VOLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS. SECONDARY EFFECTS IN MOSFETS. COMPLEMENTARY MOSFET (CMOS) CIRCUITS

MOS DEVICES (3H)
CHARGE-COUPLED DEVICES. STATIC AND DYNAMIC RANDOM ACCESS MEMORIES (SRAM AND DRAM). NONVOLATILE MEMORY DEVICES.

QUANTUM WELL DEVICES (5H)
MOSFET SCALING TRENDS AND THEORY. SHORT CHANNEL EFFECTS. PUNCH-THROUGH. VELOCITY SATURATION. DOPANT NUMBER FLUCTUATIONS. PN JUNCTIONS AND OXIDE TUNNELING. APPROACHES TO OVERCOME SCALING ISSUES IN NANOSCALE MOSFETS. DOUBLE GATE MOSFETS. FINFETS. TUNNELING FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTOR, RESONANT TUNNELING DIODES.

QUANTUM WIRE DEVICES (3H)
TRANSPORT IN ONE-DIMENSIONAL ELECTRON SYSTEMS. IDEAL 1DES. SEMICONDUCTOR 1DES. BALLISTIC TRANSPORT IN SHORT CHANNEL MOSFETS. NANOWIRE MOSFETS.

QUANTUM DOT DEVICES (5H)
ZERO-DIMENSIONAL ELECTRON SYSTEMS. SEMICONDUCTOR QUANTUM DOT. COULOMB BLOCKADE. TUNNEL JUNCTIONS. SINGLE-ELECTRON TRANSISTOR. MODELING OF SINGLE-ELECTRON TRANSISTORS. SINGLE-ELECTRON TRANSISTOR LOGIC. QUANTUM-DOT CELLULAR AUTOMATA.

CARBON NANOTUBES, GRAPHENE, AND OTHER 2D MATERIALS (3H)
FULLERENES. CARBON NANOTUBES. GRAPHENE. TRANSITION METAL DICHALCOGENIDES AND OTHER 2D MATERIALS. NANOMATERIAL-BASED DEVICES.

SPINTRONIC DEVICES (2H)
FERROMAGNETIC MATERIALS. GIANT MAGNETORESISTANCE DEVICES. MAGNETIC TUNNEL JUNCTION DEVICES. SPIN TRANSFER TORQUE DEVICES.

DEVICE FABRICATION TECHNOLOGY (2H)
OXIDATION. LITHOGRAPHY. PATTERN TRANSFER-ETCHING. DOPING. DOPANT DIFFUSION. THIN-FILM DEPOSITION. INTERCONNECTS. FABRICATION TECHNIQUES FOR NANOSTRUCTURES. CMOS PROCESS FLOW.
Teaching Methods
THE COURSE INCLUDES LECTURES AND APPLICATION EXAMPLES. THE STUDENTS SOLVE EXERCISES TO CONSOLIDATE THE BASIC CONCEPTS AND TO GET FAMILIAR WITH THE PARAMETERS RELATED TO NANOELECTRONIC DEVICES. THE COURSE MIGHT INCLUDE A LABORATORY PART DEDICATED TO TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES FOR NANODEVICE CHARACTERIZATION.

Verification of learning
THE ASSESSMENT OF THE LEVEL OF LEARNING REQUIRES AN ORAL DISCUSSION OF ABOUT ONE HOUR. THE ORAL DISCUSSION, IN WHICH THE STUDENT IS ASKED TO DISCUSS A RANDOMLY CHOSEN SUBSET OF TOPICS, IS AIMED TO CHECK THE LEVEL OF THEORETICAL UNDERSTANDING, THE ANALYTICAL ABILITY, AND THE PRESENTATION SKILLS OF THE STUDENT.
THE ASSESSMENT CONSIDERS HOW EFFECTIVE ARE THE METHODS, HOW COMPLETE AND SOUND ARE THE REPLIES AND HOW CLEAR IS THE PRESENTATION.
THE MINIMUM SCORE IS 18 AND IS ATTRIBUTED WHEN THE STUDENT HAS A LIMITED BUT ENOUGH KNOWLEDGE OF BASIC DEVICE PHYSICS OR SHOWS INCERTITUDES IN THE APPLICATION OF THE METHODS TO EVALUATE DEVICE PARAMETERS.
THE MAXIMUM SCORE IS 30 AND IS ATTRIBUTED WHEN THE STUDENT SHOWS EXCELLENT AND COMPLETE KNOWLEDGE OF DEVICE PHYSICS, COMBINED WITH THE ABILITY TO ANALYTICALLY FORMULATE IT.
THE FINAL SCORE, UP TO 30 CUM LAUDE, COMBINES THE SCORES OF THE ORAL DISCUSSION, AND IN MINOR PART, THE ATTENDANCE OF THE COURSE. THE LAUDE IS RESERVED FOR STUDENTS WHO SHOW AN OUTSTANDING MASTERING OF DEVICE PHYSICS AND ITS ANALYTICAL TREATMENT.

Texts
TEXTBOOKS:
B.G. PARK, S.W. HUANG, Y.J. PARK: NANOELECTRONIC DEVICES, 2012, JENNY STANFORD PUBLISHING, SINGAPORE
J. KNOCH: NANOELECTRONICS, 2021, DE GRUYTER, BERLIN, GERMANY
G.W. HANSON: FUNDAMENTAL OF NANOELECTRONICS, 2008, PEARSON EDUCATION, HOBOKEN, NJ 07030, USA
M. LUNDSTROM: FUNDAMENTALS OF NANOTRANSISTORS, 2017, WORLD SCIENTIFIC, SINGAPORE
S. M. SZE, M.-K. LEE: SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: PHYSICS AND TECHNOLOGY, 4TH EDITION, 2021, WILEY
V.K. KHANNA: INTRODUCTORY NANOELECTRONICS - PHYSICAL THEORY AND DEVICE ANALYSIS, CRC PRESS, 2021, BOCA RATON
H. RAZA: NANOELECTRONICS FUNDAMENTALS - MATERIALS, DEVICES AND SYSTEMS, 2019 SPRINGER, CHAM, SWITZERLAND
More Information
THE INSTRUCTOR IS AVAILABLE FOR INFORMATION OR DISCUSSIONS ABOUT THE CONTENTS OF THE COURSE AT ANY TIME. E-MAIL: ADIBARTOLOMEO@UNISA.IT
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