NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE ASTROPHYSICS

Fisica NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE ASTROPHYSICS

0522600056
DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS "E. R. CAIANIELLO"
EQF7
PHYSICS
2022/2023

YEAR OF COURSE 2
YEAR OF DIDACTIC SYSTEM 2021
AUTUMN SEMESTER
CFUHOURSACTIVITY
648LESSONS
ExamDate
APPELLO DI FEBBRAIO 202314/02/2023 - 10:00
APPELLO DI FEBBRAIO 202314/02/2023 - 10:00
Objectives
THE COURSE IS FOCUSED ON THE ROLE OF NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS IN ASTROPHYSICS.

KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
STUDENTS WILL ACHIEVE A GOOD GENERAL KNOWLEDGE OF THE ROLE OF NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS PROCESSES IN ASTROPHYSICAL ENVIRONMENTS. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS USED TO GATHER INFORMATION OF THE RELEVANT MICROSCOPIC PROCESSES IN ASTROPHYSICS WILL BE DESCRIBED, AND EMPHASIS WILL BE GIVEN TO THE LINK TO OBSERVATIONAL DATA, IN PARTICULAR THOSE ARISING FROM MULTI-MESSENGER ASTRONOMY.

APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
STUDENTS WILL BE TRAINED THROUGH A SIMPLIFIED CALCULATION OF THE STELLAR RATES DURING HYDROGEN AND HELIUM BURNING STAGES AND THE COMPARISON TO OBSERVATIONAL DATA (SOLAR NEUTRINO ENERGY SPECTRUM AND WHITE DWARF COMPOSITION). IN ADDITION, THE STUDY OF THE SPECIFICATIONS AND STRUCTURE OF SOME DETECTORS SELECTED FOR THEIR RELEVANCE IN THE FIELD OF MULTI-MESSENGER ASTRONOMY WILL BE PROPOSED.
Prerequisites
THE COURSE REQUIRES A GOOD KNOWLEDGE OF QUANTUM MECHANICS AND OF THE EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES IN NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS
Contents
1 – BIG BANG COSMOLOGY (4H)
INTRODUCTION TO GENERAL RELATIVITY. THE BIG BANG THEORY. A THERMAL HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSE. OBSERVATIONAL COSMOLOGY. BIG BANG NUCLEOSYNTHESIS. OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCES. BARYOGENESIS.

2 – NUCLEAR ASTROPHYSICS IN STARS (6H)
STELLAR EQUILIBRIUM. NUCLEAR FUSION AND NUCLEOSYNTHESIS. R AND S PROCESSES. THE SOLAR STANDARD MODEL. SOLAR NEUTRINOS AND OSCILLATIONS. MATTER EFFECTS. REACTOR NEUTRINOS. STELLAR EXPLOSIONS. SUPERNOVAE NEUTRINOS

3 – EXPERIMENTAL NUCLEAR ASTROPHYSICS (2H)
NUCLEAR ASTROPHYSICS AT ACCELERATORS. EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES. NEUTRON TIME OF FLIGHT

4 – COSMIC RAYS ACCELERATION AND PROPAGATION (4H)
THE COSMIC RAY SPECTRUM. ACCELERATION MECHANISMS. GALACTIC SOURCES. COSMIC RAY PROPAGATION. TRANSPORT EQUATIONS. OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCES.

5 – COSMIC RAY DETECTION (4H)
DIRECT DETECTION. BALLOON AND SATELLITE EXPERIMENTS. RESULTS IN DIRECT DETECTION. ELECTRONS AND THEIR PROPAGATION. ANTI-MATTER IN COSMIC RAYS.
INDIRECT DETECTION. AIR SHOWERS. THE KNEE OF THE COSMIC RAY SPECTRUM

6 – ULTRA HIGH ENERGY COSMIC RAYS (4H)
THE ANKLE OF THE COSMIC RAY SPECTRUM. PROPAGATION OF ULTRA HIGH ENERGY COSMIC RAYS. GZK EFFECT. HYBRID TECHNIQUES (FLUORESCENCE, RADIO, CHERENKOV). COMPOSITION AND SPECTRUM. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL UNCERTAINTIES. COMPARISONS WITH MEASUREMENTS AT ACCELERATORS

7 – LEPTONS IN THE ATMOSPHERE (5H)
MUONS IN THE ATMOSHERE AND UNDERGROUND
NEUTRINOS IN THE ATMOSPHERE AND UNDERGROUND. ATMOSPHERIC NEUTRINO OSCILLATIONS. BEAM NEUTRINOS.

8 – GAMMA RAY ASTRONOMY(5H)
LEPTONIC AND HADRONIC MECHANISMS. GEV ASTRONOMY. GALACTIC DIFFUSE FLUX. GALACTIC SOURCES. EXTRA-GALACTIC SOURCES. TRANSIENT SOURCES. TEV ASTRONOMY. EXTENDED GALACTIC SOURCES SORGENTI GALATTICHE ESTESE.

9 – NEUTRINO ASTRONOMY (5H)
NEUTRINO TELESCOPES. DETECTION AND ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES. HADRONIC MECHANISMS. DIFFUSE FLUX OF COSMIC NEUTRINOS. NEUTRINO SOURCES. GZK NEUTRINOS

10 – GRAVITATIONAL WAVES ASTRONOMY (5H)
GRAVITATIONAL WAVES. DETECTION AND ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES. BLACK HOLE MERGERS. NEUTRON STAR MERGERS. MULTI-MESSENGER OBSERVATIONS. NUCLEOSYNTHESIS

11 – DARK MATTER (4H)
MOTIVATIONS FOR DARK MATTER. DETECTION TECHNIQUES: PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES, DIRECT DETECTION, INDIRECT DETECTION. DARK MATTER DETECTORS. RECENT RESULTS
Teaching Methods
THE COURSE IS BASED ON LECTURES, TOTAL 48 HOURS. ATTENDING LECTURES IS NOT MANDATORY, BUT STRONGLY RECOMMENDED. TWO HOURS OF INDIVIDUAL STUDY FOR EACH HOUR OF LECTURE ARE ON AVERAGE NECESSARY TO FOLLOW THE COURSE WITH PROFIT.
Verification of learning
THE ASSESSMENT OF THE COMPETENCE OF STUDENTS WILL BE BASED ON AN ORAL TEST. THE ORAL TEST WILL CONSIST IN AN INTERVIEW (APPROX. 60 MIN) ON THE CONTENTS OF THE COURSE PROGRAM. AN INDIVIDUAL STUDY ON A SUBJECT CHOSEN IN AGREEMENT WITH THE TEACHER WILL BE PART OF THE TEST. THIS STUDY WILL TYPICALLY BE FOCUSED ON THE ROLE OF NUCLEAR OR PARTICLE PHYSICS PROCESSES IN A SELECTED ASTROPHYSICAL SCENARIO, AND ON THE IMPACT OF THE THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL UNCERTAINTIES.
A BASIC OVERALL KNOWLEDGE OF THE COURSE PROGRAM IS REQUIRED TO PASS THE EXAMINATION. THE MAXIMUM RATING REQUIRES THE ABILITY OF FACING CASES NOT EXPLICITLY INCLUDED IN THE PROGRAM, BUT FULLY APPROACHABLE WITH THE PROVIDED INFORMATION.
Texts
BASIC TEXTBOOK:
INTRODUCTORY NUCLEAR PHYSICS, K. KRANE


NUCLEAR ASTROPHYSICS:
CAULDRONS IN THE COSMOS, C.E. ROLFS AND RODNEY


PARTICLE ASTROPHYSICS AND MULTI-MESSENGER ASTRONOMY:
PARTICLES AND ASTROPHYSICS: A MULTI-MESSENGER APPROACH, M. SPURIO


ALSO, THE FOLLOWING TEXTBOOKS ARE SUGGESTED:
HIGH ENERGY ASTROPHYSICS, M.S. LONGAIR
COSMIC RAYS AND PARTICLE PHYSICS, T.K. GAISSER

THE LECTURER WILL ALSO SUGGEST DURING CLASSES ADDITIONAL MATERIAL FROM THE SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE TO COMPLEMENT THE INFORMATION GIVEN
More Information
STUDENTS ARE INVITED TO CONTACT THE LECTURER FOR CLARIFICATION ON THE TOPICS OF THE COURSE
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