INNOVATION IN UNIT OPERATIONS

Ingegneria Alimentare - Food Engineering INNOVATION IN UNIT OPERATIONS

0622800014
DIPARTIMENTO DI INGEGNERIA INDUSTRIALE
EQF7
FOOD ENGINEERING
2018/2019



YEAR OF DIDACTIC SYSTEM 2016
SECONDO SEMESTRE
CFUHOURSACTIVITY
660LESSONS
Objectives
KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING:
PROPERTY OF SYSTEMS IN CONDITIONS CLOSE TO THE CRITICAL POINT. PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION AND DESIGN OF ADSORPTION/DESORPTION SYSTEMS WITH SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDS. PRINCIPLES AND MODELING OF SOLID-SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION, SUPERCRITICAL FLUID-LIQUID, SOLID-LIQUID-SUPERCRITICAL FLUID. PRINCIPLES AND MODELING OF PROCESSES OF CRYSTALLIZATION, BOTH CONVENTIONAL IN THE PROXIMITY OF THE CRITICAL POINT. INTRODUCTION TO CHEMICAL AND ENZYMATIC REACTORS AT HIGH PRESSURE.

APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING – ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
ABILITY TO ANALYZE THE OPERATION OF THE UNIT OPERATIONS DESCRIBED DURING THE COURSE.

APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING – ENGINEERING DESIGN
ABILITY TO DESIGN THE UNIT OPERATIONS DESCRIBED DURING THE COURSE

MAKING JUDGMENTS - ENGINEERING PRACTICE:
ABILITY TO OPERATE ON A PLANT UTILIZING SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDS.

COMMUNICATION SKILLS – TRANSVERSAL SKILLS:
THE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO IMPROVE THE TECHNICAL LANGUAGE OF STUDENTS AND THEIR CAPABILIY OF COMMUNICATION ABOUT THE DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF UNIT OPERATIONS.

LEARNING SKILLS – TRANSVERSAL SKILLS:
ABILITY TO APPLY KNOWLEDGE IN DIFFERENT SITUATIONS THAN THOSE PRESENTED IN THE COURSE AND ABILITY TO REFINE OWN KNOWLEDGE
Prerequisites
KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING OF MASS BALANCE OF CLOSED AND OPEN SYSTEMS IN WITH AND WITHOUT CHEMICAL REACTIONS. ELEMENTS OF CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF A PROCESS PLANT. PROCESS DIAGRAMS AND ENERGY OPTIMIZATION IN PROCESS PLANTS.

Contents
CLASSIC OPERATIONS AND THEIR LIMITS: LIMITED SELECTIVITY, POLLUTION FROM ORGANIC SOLVENTS. HIGH PRESSURE OPERATION. SOLVENT-LESS OPERATIONS ( 2 HOURS)
PROPERTIES OF SYSTEMS UNDER PRESSURE AND ICLOSE TO THEIR CRITICAL POINT.
DENSITY BEHAVIOURS. CUBIC STATE EQUATIONS: PENG-ROBINSON, REDLICK-KWONG, BENDER. THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES. SOLUBILITY OF BINARY SYSTEMS AND TERNARY SYSTEMS. HIGH PRESSURE LIQUID VAPOR BALANCE. EXAMPLES OF POSSIBLE PHASE BEHAVIORS FOR BINARY AND TERNARY SYSTEMS. TRANSPORT PROPERTIES: VISCOSITY, DIFFUSIVITY. SURFACE TENSION. MASS AND ENERGY TRANSPORT IN DENSE FLUIDS. CALCULATION OF HEAT AND MASS TRANSPORT COEFFICIENTS. HYDRODYNAMICS OF DENSE FLUIDS. ( 10 HOURS)
ADSORPTION / DESORPTION.
BALANCED ISOTHERMS, BREAKTHROUGH AND DISPLACEMENT. ADSORPTION / DESORPTION IN SUPERCRITICAL CONDITIONS. EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION: ADSORPTION OF TERPENE BLENDS ON SILICA GEL. SOLID-FLUID SUPERCRITICAL EXTRACTION. FIXED BED EXTRACTORS. MASS BALANCE AND CONTROLLING STEPS. FRACTIONAL SEPARATION OF THE EXTRACTS. EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION: EXTRACTION FROM VEGETABLE MATRICES OF ESSENTIAL OILS, SEED OIL, PHARMACEUTICAL PRINCIPLES. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF EXTRACTION / ADSORPTION PROCESSES WITH EXAMPLES. (8 HOURS)
LIQUID-SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION (FRACTIONATION).
TERNARY SYSTEM AND COMPOSITION DIAGRAMS UNDER PRESSURE. PROCESS DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION AT HIGH PRESSURE. EXAMPLES: SOIL-OIL FRACTIONATION, WATER-ACETIC ACID, FISH OILS FOR THE RECOVERY OF FRACTIONS ENRICHED IN OMEGA3. (6 HOURS)
SOLID-LIQUID-SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION/FRACTIONATION: SPRAY EXTRACTION.
FIELD OF APPLICABILITY OF THE PROCESS. ANALYSIS OF THE CONTROLLING PARAMETERS FOR THE CONSIDERED PROCESS. EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION: PURIFICATION OF SOY LECITHIN, TOBACCO PROTEINS, PHARMACEUTICAL PRINCIPLES. (8 HOURS)
CRYSTALLIZATION.
CLASSICAL CRYSTALLIZATION AND ITS LIMITS: OVERSATURATION PARTICLE SIZE CONTROL AND SIXE DISTRIBUTION. COMPARISON AMONG SUPERCRITICAL CRYSTALLIZATION PROCESSES: RAPID EXPANSION OF A SUPERCRITICAL SOLUTION (RESS), FORMATION OF PARTICLES FROM A SATURATED SOLUTION WITH GAS (PGSS), PRECIPITATION FOR SUPERCRITICAL ANTI-SOLVENT (SAS), SUPERCRITICAL FLUID-ASSISTED ATOMIZATION (SAA). PRODUCTION OF MICRO AND NANOPARTICLES. EXAMPLES OF APPLICATION: PRODUCTION OF PRECURSORS OF SUPERCONDUCTORS AND CATALYSTS, INHALABLE AND INJECTABLE PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS, POLYMERS. (8 HOURS)
HIGH PRESSURE CHEMICAL REACTORS.
HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS IN SUPERCRITICAL FLUID MEDIUM. ENZYME REACTIONS WITH SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDS. ENZYME ACTIVITIES AND STABILITY IN SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDS. (2 HOURS DURATION)
ENCAPSULATION AND DELIVERY OF ACTIVE MOLECULES. MICRO AND NANOPOROUS MATERIALS.
MICROCAPSULES AND MICROSPHERES. LIMITS AND ADVANTAGES OF THE CONVENTIONAL EMULSION EVAPORATION PROCESS AND SUPERCRITICAL EMULSION EXTRACTION PROCESS BY HIGH PRESSURE PACKED COLUMN. HIGH-PRESSURE TERNARY PHASE EQUILIBRIA; MASS BALANCE. PRODUCTION OF MICRO AND NANOPOROUS MATERIALS WITH PHASE INVERSION TECHNIQUES ASSISTED BY SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDS AND SUPERCRITICAL HYDROGEL DRYING. (8 HOURS)
Teaching Methods
THE COURSE CONSISTS IN FRONT LESSONS (50H) AND CLASSROOM EXERCISES (10H) FOR A TOTAL AMOUNT OF 60 HOURS WHICH ARE WORTH 6 CFU CREDITS. THE PROCESS DESCRIPTIONS AND UNITARY OPERATIONS ARE ASSOCIATED TO CONCEPTS THAT THE STUDENT HAS ALREADY ACQUIRED. THE BUILDING OF KNOWLEDGE IS BUILD THROUGH A DYNAMIC PATH OPENS TO INTELLECTUAL COMPETITION; MOREOVER, THE TRANSITIONS BETWEEN MODELS ALREADY ACQUIRED AND INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THAT ENCOURAGE ADVANCED PROCESS DESIGN ARE DESCRIBED.
LECTURES ARE PROVIDED IN CLASSES IN THE PRESENCE OF STUDENTS.
THE MINIMUM FRACTION OF ATTENDED HOURS OF LECTURES REQUIRED TO TAKE THE EXAM IS 50%
THE ATTENDANCE CHECK WILL NOT BE CARRIED OUT.
STUDENTS WHO DO NOT REACH THE SUFFICIENT NUMBER OF ATTENDED HOURS MUST SUBMIT A REQUEST TO THE TEACHING COUNCIL, SPECIFYING THE TOPICS THEY COULD NOT ATTEND AND THE REASONS. THE COUNCIL WILL ESTABLISH THE METHODS OF MAKING UP MISSED LESSONS ON A CASE-BY-CASE BASIS.
Verification of learning
THE ASSESSMENT OF THE ACHIEVEMENT OF THE OBJECTIVES WILL BE DONE THROUGH AN ORAL INTERVIEW.
MINIMUM THRESHOLD: STUDENT'S ABILITY TO PROCESS DESCRIPTION AND TO EVALUATE THE EFFECT OF OPERATING PARAMETERS SUCH AS PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE ON THE OPERATIONS DESCRIBED.
EXCELLENCE: STUDENT'S ABILITY TO DESCRIBE THE PROCESS SCHEME WITH PLANT LAYOUT AND TO PROVIDE A CRITICAL EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF THE OPERATING PARAMETERS ON THE EFFICIENCY OF THE PROCESS DESCRIBED USING HIGH-PRESSURE PHASE DIAGRAMS.
Texts
GAS EXTRACTION: AN INTRODUCTION TO FUNDAMENTALS OF SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDS AND THE APPLICATION TO SEPARATION PROCESSES. AUTHORS: G. BRUNNER, EDS. SPRINGER 1994.
REVIEW PUBLICATE SU RIVISTE QUALI: JOURNAL SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDS; INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING AND CHEMICAL RESEARCH JOURNAL.

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