# Matematica | TOPOLOGY

## Matematica TOPOLOGY

 0512300036 DIPARTIMENTO DI MATEMATICA EQF6 MATHEMATICS 2021/2022

 YEAR OF COURSE 3 YEAR OF DIDACTIC SYSTEM 2018 SPRING SEMESTER
SSD CFU HOURS ACTIVITY TYPE OF ACTIVITY MAT/03 6 48 LESSONS COMPULSORY SUBJECTS, CHARACTERISTIC OF THE CLASS
 ANNAMARIA MIRANDA T
Objectives
THE COURSE "TOPOLOGY" AIMS TO EXPAND SOME FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF GENERAL TOPOLOGY AND TO INTRODUCE BASIC ALGEBRAIC TOPOLOGY.
IT IS KNOWN THAT THE FUNDAMENTAL NOTIONS IN GENERAL TOPOLOGY ARE THA BASIC TOOLS OF A WORKING MATHEMATICIAN IN A VARIETY OF FIELDS. MOREOVER, ALGEBRAIC TOPOLOGY IS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT FIELDS IN MATHEMATICS WHICH USES ALGEBRAIC TOOLS TO STUDY TOPOLOGICAL SPACES. AND THE PRIMARY GOAL OF THE COURSE IS JUST TO FORM WORKING MATHEMATICIANS.
-KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
THE BASIC GOAL OF THE FIRST PART IS TO STUDY SOME PROPERTIES OF TOPOLOGICAL SPACES AND MAPS BETWEEN THEM BY ASSOCIATING ALGEBRAIC INVARIANTS TO EACH SPACE. TWO WAYS IN WHICH THIS CAN BE DONE ARE BY FUNDAMENTAL GROUPS, OR, MORE GENERALLY, HOMOTOPY THEORY, AND THROUGH HOMOLOGY AND COHOMOLOGY GROUPS.
THE SECOND PART IS CONCERNED WITH THE STUDY OF SOME TOPOLOGICAL PROPERTIES TO INTEGRATE AND TO IMPROVE THE ALREADY KNOWN BASIC NOTIONS IN GENERAL TOPOLOGY. THE STUDENTS WILL BE INTRODUCED TO THE LOCAL PROPERTIES, SUCH AS THE LOCAL COMPACTNESS AND THE LOCAL CONNECTNESS, TO THE COMPACTIFICATION PROBLEM,.. AND SO ON
ON SATISFYING THE REQUIREMENTS OF THIS COURSE, THE STUDENT WILL HAVE THE FOLLOWING KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS.
• TO UNDERSTAND THE FUNDAMENTAL IDEAS IN GENERAL AND ALGEBRAIC TOPOLOGY.
• TO EXPLAIN CLEARLY THE FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF GENERAL AND ALGEBRAIC TOPOLOGY.
•TO KNOW HOW TO PROPERLY USE ALGEBRAIC OBJECTS THAT ARE TOPOLOGICAL INVARIANTS

-APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING-APPLICATION SKILLS
SOME PROBLEMS ARE SUGGESTED AND TYPICAL MATHEMATICAL APPROACHES ARE CONSIDERED TO IMPROVE THE APPLYING ABILITY AND CAPACITY OF INVENTION IN DEMONSTRATION. AT THE END OF THE COURSE THE STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE:
• TO ANALYZE PROBLEMS, EXPLAIN CONCEPTS AND MAKE PROOFS.
• TO USE EFFICIENTLY THE PROPOSED TECHNIQUES BY THEIR APPLICATION TO CONSTRUCT SIGNIFICANT EXAMPLES AND IN SOLVING PROBLEMS AND EXERCISES.
Prerequisites
PREVIOUS COURSES CONTAINING BASIC CONCEPTS OF MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS, ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRY ARE PRESUPPOSED. MOREOVER FIRST BASIC NOTIONS IN GENERAL TOPOLOGY. ARE REQUIRED.
Contents
GENERAL TOPOLOGY:
1. A BRIEF RECALL OF SOME BASIC TOPOLOGICAL CONCEPTS.
2.LOCAL COMPACT SPACES, LOCAL CONNECTED SPACES.
3.THE COMPACTIFICATION PROBLEM.
4. METRIZABLE COMPACT SPACES.
5. THE EULERO- POINCARE’ CHARACTERISTIC.
6. THE TOPOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF COMPACT, CONNECTED SURFACES (AN INTRODUCTION).
ALGEBRAIC TOPOLOGY:
7.FOUNDAMENTAL GROUP AND COVERING SPACES.
8.HOMOTOPY THEORY.
9. THE FOUNDAMENTAL GROUP OF THE CIRCLE.
10. CLASSIFICATION OF TOPOLOGICAL SURFACES IN ALGEBRAIC TOPOLOGY.

Teaching Methods
TEACHING METHODS ARE BASED ON LESSONS (5CFU), DISCUSSIONS AND WORKING GROUP ACTIVITIES (1CFU) ORGANIZED TO SHOW THE ADVANTAGES OF USING TOPOLOGY AND TOOLS FROM ABSTRACT ALGEBRA TO STUDY TOPOLOGICAL SPACES. THE BASIC GOAL IS TO FIND ALGEBRAIC INVARIANTS THAT CLASSIFY TOPOLOGICAL SPACES UP TO HOMEOMORPHISM, THOUGH USUALLY MOST CLASSIFY UP TO HOMOTOPY EQUIVALENCE. STUDENTS APPRECIATE HOW FUNDAMENTALS RESULTS, SUCH AS THE FUNDAMENTAL ALGEBRA THEOREM, THE BROWER FIXED POINT THEOREM, ARE EASILY OBTAINED BY USING ALGEBRAIC CONCEPTS THAT ARE TOPOLOGICAL INVARIANTS.
THE TEACHING METHODS ARE TARGETED AT INTEGRATING EXPERIENCE, KNOWLEDGE, LEARNING, CURIOSITY AND SKILLS. THE TEACHING METHODS AIM TO INTEGRATE KNOWLEDGE, CURIOSITY, AUTONOMY, COOPERATION, PRODUCTION. MANY PROBLEMS ARE PROPOSED TO IMPROVE APPLYING ABILITIES AND INVENTION SKILLS IN THE PROOF.

Verification of learning
A FINAL EXAMINATION AIMS TO VALUE THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE ARGUMENTS TREATED IN THE COURSE, THE LEVEL OF UNDERSTANDING OF PERFORMED MATHEMATICAL APPROACHES, THE COMMUNICATION SKILLS, THE OPENING IN DISCUSSION, THE ORIGINALITY IN ARGUMENTATION AND THE INVENTION IN DEMONSTRATION.
IT CONSISTS OF AN ORAL EXAMINATION AIMING TO VALUE NOT ONLY THE ACQUIRED KNOWLEDGES BUT ALSO THE UNDERSTANDING LEVEL AND THE COMMUNICATIONS SKILLS.
THE PROFESSOR WILL VERIFY ALL THE GOALS REACHED BY THE STUDENT AND HE WILL EXPRESS THE STUDENT'S LEVEL BY AN OPPORTUNE GRADE.
FULL MARKS WILL BE GIVEN TO THE STUDENTS
ABLE TO APPLY WITH ORIGINALITY THE ACQUIRED KNOWLEDGES.

Texts
[1] V.CHECCUCCI, A.TOGNOLI, E.VESENTINI -"LEZIONI DI TOPOLOGIA GENERALE"- FELTRINELLI

[2] R.ENGELKING -"GENERAL TOPOLOGY"- HELDERMANN VERLAG 1989

[3] C. KOSNIOWSKI -"INTRODUZIONE ALLA TOPOLOGIA ALGEBRICA" - ZANICHELLI.

[4] W.S.MASSEY -" ALGEBRAIC TOPOLOGY: AN INTRODUCTION"- SPRINGER-VERLAG 1991.

[5] .MUNKRES -" TOPOLOGY: "-SECOND EDITION PEARSON 2000.

[6]S. WILLARD -"GENERAL TOPOLOGY"- ADDISON -WESLEY PUBLISHING COMPANY 1970.