PHYSICS WITH PRACTICE IN LABORATORY I

Matematica PHYSICS WITH PRACTICE IN LABORATORY I

0512300014
DIPARTIMENTO DI MATEMATICA
EQF6
MATHEMATICS
2022/2023

OBBLIGATORIO
YEAR OF COURSE 2
YEAR OF DIDACTIC SYSTEM 2018
SPRING SEMESTER
CFUHOURSACTIVITY
756LESSONS
224LAB


ExamDate
FISICA CON ESERCITAZIONI DI LABORATORIO 14/02/2023 - 15:00
Objectives
THE AIM OF THE COURSE IS A CLEAR UNDERSTANDING OF NEWTON'S MECHANICS AND THERMODYNAMICS, TOGETHER WITH THE DEVELOPMENT IN THIS CONTEXT OF THE ABILITY TO PERFORM SIMPLE LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS.

KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING.
AS FAR AS NEWTON'S MECHANICS IS CONCERNED, THE MAIN OBJECTIVE IS THE ACHIEVEMENT OF A DEEP KNOWLEDGE OF THE DYNAMICS OF A SINGLE PARTICLE AS WELL AS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES AND OF A RIGID BODY, WITH THE GENERAL THEORY BEING EXTENSIVELY ILLUSTRATED WITH EXAMPLES AND APPLICATIONS TO SPECIFIC SYSTEMS.
AS CONCERNS THERMODYNAMICS, THE MAIN GOAL IS THE COMPREHENSION OF ITS FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES, WITH APPLICATIONS TO THOSE PHYSICAL PROCESSES, NOT TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT IN MECHANICS, WHICH INVOLVE EXCHANGES OF THERMAL ENERGY IN FORM OF HEAT FLOWS.
FINALLY, THE OBJECTIVE OF LABORATORY ACTIVITY IS THE REALIZATION OF SIMPLE EXPERIMENTS OF MECHANICS AND THERMODYNAMICS, TOGETHER WITH A CAREFUL ANALYSIS OF THE EXPERIMENTAL DATA CORRESPONDINGLY OBTAINED.

APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING.
AT THE CONCLUSION OF THE COURSE STUDENTS ARE EXPECTED TO BE ABLE TO:

•UNDERSTAND THE PHYSICS UNDERLYING THE BEHAVIOR OF A SINGLE PARTICLE AS WELL AS OF A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES, STARTING FROM THE THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE ACQUIRED IN THE COURSE;
•IDENTIFY CONSERVATION LAWS, REFERRING TO THEM WHEREVER IS POSSIBLE TO DEEPEN THE COMPREHENSION OF A GIVEN ISSUE;
•APPLY THE PREVIOUS IDEAS TO THE RESOLUTION OF SIMPLE EXERCISES OF MECHANICS;
•SOLVE SIMPLE EXERCISES OF THERMODYNAMICS ON THE BASIS OF THE FIRST AND THE SECOND PRINCIPLE, WITH A SPECIAL ATTENTION TO THOSE RELATED TO THE BEHAVIOR OF AN IDEAL GAS;
•REALIZE AND INTERPRET SIMPLE EXPERIMENTS OF MECHANICS AND THERMODYNAMICS.
Prerequisites
THE REQUIRED BACKGROUND INCLUDES THE BASIC KNOWLEDGE OF TRIGONOMETRY, ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY AND CALCULUS FOR FUNCTIONS OF A SINGLE VARIABLE.
Contents
1.SCIENTIFIC METHOD AND UNITS. VECTOR ALGEBRA.

2.KINEMATICS:
POSITION, DISPLACEMENT, VELOCITY, ACCELERATION, MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE, PROJECTILE MOTION, CIRCULAR MOTION.

3.DYNAMICS OF A SINGLE PARTICLE:
INERTIA PRINCIPLE, INERTIAL AND NON-INERTIAL REFERENCE FRAMES. SECOND LAW OF DYNAMICS, LINEAR MOMENTUM, IMPULSE, WEIGHT, FRICTION, TENSION, CONSTRAINTS, ELASTIC FORCES AND LINEAR HARMONIC OSCILLATOR, KINETIC ENERGY AND WORK, CONSERVATIVE FORCES, POTENTIAL ENERGY, CONSERVATION OF THE MECHANICAL ENERGY, ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND TORQUE.

4.DYNAMICS OF SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES:
THIRD LAW OF DYNAMICS, FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF DYNAMICS, CONSERVATION OF LINEAR MOMENTUM AND ANGULAR MOMENTUM, CENTER OF MASS, CENTER OF MASS THEOREM, KOENIG'S THEOREMS, COLLISIONS.

5.RIGID BODIES:
MOMENT OF INERTIA, THEOREM OF HUYGENS-STEINER, KINETIC ENERGY, ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND EQUATION OF MOTION OF A RIGID BODY ROTATING ABOUT A FIXED AXIS, STATICS AND EQUILIBRIUM CONDITIONS, EQUILIBRIUM UNDER GRAVITY. ROLLING MOTION.

6.THERMODYNAMICS:
TEMPERATURE, THERMOMETERS, THERMODYNAMICAL TRANSFORMATIONS, REVERSIBILITY AND IRREVERSIBILITY, WORK AND HEAT, JOULE'S EXPERIMENTS, FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS, INTERNAL ENERGY, HEAT CAPACITY AND SPECIFIC HEAT, PHASE CHANGES AND LATENT HEATS, IDEAL GASES AND EQUATION OF STATE, JOULE'S EXPERIMENT ON THE INTERNAL ENERGY OF AN IDEAL GAS, RELEVANT TRANSFORMATIONS OF AN IDEAL GAS, MAYER'S RELATION, CYCLIC TRANSFORMATIONS, EFFICIENCY, CARNOT'S CYCLE, SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS, KELVIN AND CLAUSIUS STATEMENTS AND THEIR EQUIVALENCE, HEAT ENGINES AND REFRIGERATING ENGINES, CARNOT THEOREM, CLAUSIUS’S INEQUALITY, ENTROPY. ENTROPY VARIATION FOR AN IDEAL GAS AND IN PHASE CHANGES. ENTROPY VARIATION IN RELEVANT THERMODYNAMICAL TRANSFORMATIONS.

7.DATA ANALYSIS AND LABORATORY ACTIVITY:
ERRORS, TREATMENT AND GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF THE EXPERIMENTAL DATA, ERROR PROPAGATION, GAUSSIAN DISTRIBUTION, LEAST SQUARES METHOD, MEASUREMENT OF THE DENSITY OF A SOLID, OF THE ELASTIC CONSTANT OF A SPRING, OF THE GRAVITY ACCELERATION, OF THE LIMIT VELOCITY OF A SPHERE IN A FLUID, OF THE TIME CONSTANT OF A THERMOMETER.
Teaching Methods
THE MAIN PART OF THE COURSE IS DEVOTED TO THEORETICAL LECTURES FOCUSING ON THE NEWTONIAN FORMULATION OF CLASSICAL MECHANICS, AS WELL AS ON CLASSICAL THERMODYNAMICS. THIS PART IS SUPPLEMENTED BY LECTURES FOCUSING ON THE SOLUTION OF EXERCISES INVOLVING THE DYNAMICS OF A SINGLE PARTICLE AND OF RIGID BODIES, AS WELL AS THE BEHAVIOR OF THERMODYNAMICAL SYSTEMS.
THE ACTIVITY IN THE LAB FORESEES LECTURES ABOUT STATISTICS AND DATA ANALYSIS AND THE SETUP OF A FEW EXPERIMENTS ON CLASSICAL MECHANICS
Verification of learning
THE ACHIEVEMENT OF THE COURSE OBJECTIVES WILL BE CERTIFIED BY A WRITTEN AND ORAL EXAM WITH GRADES ON A SCALE OF 30. THE FINAL SCRIPT INCLUDES EXERCISES TO BE PERFORMED IN 2 HOURS; STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO ACCESS THE ORAL EXAM IF THE GRADES OF WRITTEN TEST ARE AT LEAST 18/30. INTERMEDIATE SCRIPT EXAMINATIONS OF 2 HOURS WITH TWO PROBLEMS CAN BE SCHEDULED DURING THE COURSE; THOSE WHO REACH THE FINAL AVERAGE OF AT LEAST 18/30 MAY OPT TO DIRECTLY SUPPORT THE FINAL ORAL EXAM. THE EXAM IS ORGANIZED IN ORDER TO FULLY ASCERTAIN THE CANDIDATE'S KNOWLEDGE WITH PARTICULAR ATTENTION TO HIS/HER ABILITY TO FULLY EXHIBIT CONNECTIONS BETWEEN THE TOPICS OF THE STUDIED ARGUMENTS WITH A GOOD LEVEL OF CLARITY IN THE PRESENTATION OF THE TOPICS.
IT IS ALSO REQUIRED THAT STUDENTS PREPARE REPORTS DESCRIBING IN AN ACCURATE WAY EACH EXPERIMENT PERFORMED DURING THE LABORATORY ACTIVITY.

THE FINAL GRADE COMES FROM THE AVERAGE OF THE GRADES OBTAINED FOR THE TWO PARTS OF THE COURSE, WEIGHTED BY THE NUMEBR OF CFU ASSOCIATED TO THEM (7 FOR THE THEORETICAL PART, 2 FOR THE LABORATORY PART). A BONUS UP TO A MAXIMUM OF 3 POINTS CAN BE ADDED, DEPENDING ON HOW CLEARLY THE ARGUMENTS ARE SET OUT IN THE ORAL EXAMINATION.
Texts
D. GIANCOLI, "FISICA 1" AMBROSIANA
D. HALLIDAY, R. RESNICK, J. WALKER, “FONDAMENTI DI FISICA”, AMBROSIANA
J. R. TAYLOR, "INTRODUZIONE ALL'ANALISI DEGLI ERRORI", SECONDA EDIZIONE, ZANICHELLI
M. SEVERI, "INTRODUZIONE ALLA ESPERIMENTAZIONE FISICA", ZANICHELLI
G. CANNELLI, "METODOLOGIE SPERIMENTALI IN FISICA", EDISES

ADVANCED TEXTBOOKS
C. MENCUCCINI, V. SILVESTRINI, “FISICA I – MECCANICA TERMODINAMICA”, LIGUORI
P. MAZZOLDI, M. NIGRO, C.VOCI, “FISICA” VOL. I, EDISES
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