BIOCHEMICAL AND FOOD PLANT DESIGN

Ingegneria Alimentare - Food Engineering BIOCHEMICAL AND FOOD PLANT DESIGN

0622800032
DIPARTIMENTO DI INGEGNERIA INDUSTRIALE
EQF7
FOOD ENGINEERING
2022/2023



OBBLIGATORIO
YEAR OF COURSE 2
YEAR OF DIDACTIC SYSTEM 2019
AUTUMN SEMESTER
CFUHOURSACTIVITY
1BIOCHEMICAL REACTORS - IMPIANTI BIOCHIMICI (MODULO DI BIOCHEMICAL AND FOOD PLANT DESIGN - IMPIANTI BIOCHIMICI E DELL'INDUSTRIA ALIMENTARE)
660LESSONS
2FOOD PROCESS DESIGN - PROGETTAZIONE DEI PROCESSI DELL'INDISTRIA ALIMENTARE (MODULO DI BIOCHEMICAL AND FOOD PLANT DESIGN - IMPIANTI BIOCHIMICI E DELL'INDUSTRIA ALIMENTARE)
660LESSONS
Objectives
KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
THE STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS OF A MICROBIOLOGICAL REACTOR. MONOD EQUATION AND ITS APPLICATION TO MICROBIAL KINETICS. BIOLOGICAL RATE EQUATION" (BRE). MODEL FOR GROWTH ASSOCIATED SYSTEMS. BATCH BIOREACTORS OPERATING WITH FLOCKS: DESIGN BASED ON KINETIC AND ON SCALE-UP CRITERIA. OPERATION WITH MULTIPLE FERMENTERS. SPECIFIC ISSUES CONCERNING DESIGN AND OPERATION OF THE MAIN CONTINUOUS REACTOR SCHEME DUE TO THE PRESENCE OF MICROORGANISMS IN FORM OF FLOCS AND OF FILM. DESIGN OF AERATED SYSTEMS. DESIGN OF FERMENTERS UTILIZING IMMOBILIZED ENZYMES.
INNOVATIVE PROCESSES IN FOOD SANITIZATION. PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION AND DESIGN OF: CRYOCONCENTRATION PLANTS, MICRONIZATION AND NANONIZATION, INCLUDING COMMINUTION, EMULSIFICATION. PLANT DESIGN: PRELIMINARY ORGANIZATION, CONCEPTUAL DESIGN, DESIGN METHODS. DESIGN PROBLEMS OF COMPLEX SYSTEMS: DRYING; FREEZE-DRYING, SPRAY-DRYING, STERILIZATION, FREEZING. ANALYSIS OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT. DESIGN PROBLEMS OF COMPLETE PLANT INSTALLATIONS. PROCESS LAYOUT. INDUSTRIAL PLANT MANAGEMENT. MANAGEMENT OF MATERIALS, HUMAN RESOURCES AND MAINTENANCE. INDUSTRIAL LOGISTICS. INVENTORY MANAGEMENT. DEVELOPMENT OF A BUSINESS PLAN OF A PRODUCTION LINE FOR THE FOOD INDUSTRY.

APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING – ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
ABILITY TO ANALYSE THE WORKING CONDITIONS AND OPERATE: THE MAIN MICROBIAL AND ENZYME REACTOR CONFIGURATIONS; THE WORKING CONDITIONS AND OPERATE AERATION SYSTEMS FOR BIOREACTORS; FOOD MANUFACTURING PROCESSES. ABILITY TO REPRESENT THE PROCESS IN A PLANT FLOW-SHEET OF THE PLANT, AND TO IDENTIFY THE INDIVIDUAL UNIT OPERATIONS AND THEIR COMBINATION FOR THE MANUFACTURING OF FOOD PRODUCTS.
ABILITY TO DEVELOP PROPER MATHEMATICAL MODELS TO DESCRIBE BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS.

APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING – ENGINEERING DESIGN
DESIGN THE MAIN MICROBIAL AND ENZYME REACTOR CONFIGURATIONS. DESIGN AERATION SYSTEMS IN BIOREACTORS.
DESIGN OF COMPLEX FOOD SYSTEMS: (A) DEFINITION OF THE PLANT LAYOUT, (B) DEFINITION OF MASS AND ENERGY FLUXES, (C) SIZING OF THE MAIN UNIT OPERATIONS AND SELECTION OF THE MOST APPROPRIATE TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS, INCLUDING THE USE OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES, (D) ASSESSMENT OF THE REQUIRED UTILITIES, (E) ESTIMATION OF PROFITABILITY. ABILITY TO CARRY OUT AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS AS PART OF A FEASIBILITY STUDY OF COMPLEX FOOD PLANTS.

MAKING JUDGMENTS - ENGINEERING PRACTICE
ABILITY TO OPERATE MICROBIAL AND ENZYMATIC REACTORS.
ABILITY TO MANAGE THE OPERATION OF EQUIPMENT, TECHNOLOGIES AND TOOLS TO MANUFACTURE FOOD PRODUCTS. AWARENESS OF THE ECONOMIC, ORGANIZATIONAL AND MANAGEMENT ASPECTS IN THE DESIGN AND OPERATION OF COMPLEX FOOD PLANTS.

COMMUNICATION SKILLS – TRANSVERSAL SKILLS
ABILITY OF WORKING IN GROUPS ON A COMMON PROJECT. ABILITY TO DESCRIBE THE RESULT OF THE DESIGN OF COMPLEX FOOD PLANTS IN A TECHNICAL DOCUMENT. ABILITY TO EXPLAIN VERBALLY, ALSO WITH THE AID OF SLIDES, AND DISCUSS THE RESULT OF THE DESIGN OF BIOCHEMICAL REACTORS AND OF COMPLEX FOOD PLANTS.

LEARNING SKILLS – TRANSVERSAL SKILLS
KNOWING HOW TO APPLY THE ACQUIRED KNOWLEDGE IN DIFFERENT CONTEXTS THAN THOSE PRESENTED DURING THE COURSE AND TO DEEPEN THE TOPICS DEALT WITH BY USING MATERIALS OTHER THAN THOSE PROPOSED.

LEARNING SKILLS – INVESTIGATION SKILLS
ABILITY TO COLLECT, MANAGE AND DEVELOP INDEPENDENTLY THE BODY OF KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION REQUIRED IN ENGINEERING DESIGN.
Prerequisites
FOR THE SUCCESSFUL ACHIEVEMENT OF THE COURSE OBJECTIVES THE STUDENTS ARE REQUIRED TO HAVE BASIC MATHEMATICAL KNOWLEDGE, AND KNOWLEDGE RELATED TO CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM AND MASS, ENERGY AND MOMENTUM BALANCES.
Contents
MODULE: BIOCHEMICAL REACTORS (TOTAL HOURS 60: TH 46, PR 14)

INTRODUCTION (TH 6)
INTRODUCTION TO THE COURSE. STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS OF A MICROBIOLOGICAL REACTOR.

KINETICS OF BIOLOGICAL REACTORS (TH 7; PR 2)
THE MONOD EQUATION AND ITS APPLICATION TO MICROBIAL KINETICS. REACTION KINETIC MODELS FOR MICROBIAL MASS: FLAKES AND FILMS. KINETIC EQUATIONS FOR FLAKES AND FILMS AS "BIOLOGICAL RATE EQUATION" (BRE).GROWTH ASSOCIATED SYSTEMS.

BIOREACTORS (TH 21; PR 8)
DRAFT BATCH FLOC FERMENTERS BASED ON KINETIC AND ON SCALE-UP CRITERIA. MULTIPLE FERMENTERS.
PLANT CONFIGURATIONS, KINETIC MODEL FOR THE DESIGN AND THE OPERATION OF: CONTINUOUS STIRRED TANK FERMENTER (CSTF), CSTF WITH RECIRCULATION OF MICROBIAL MASS, FLOC PISTON FLOW FERMENTERS (PFF), FLUIDIZED BED FERMENTER (FBF). COMBINATION OF CONTINUOUS FERMENTERS: TRAIN OF CSTF, CSTF FOLLOWED BY PFF.
PLANT CONFIGURATIONS, KINETIC MODELS FOR THE DESIGN AND THE OPERATION OF: CONTINUOUS STIRRED TANK FERMENTER WITH FLOC AND FILMS, FILM PISTON FLOW FERMENTER, TRICKLING BED FILM FERMENTER.

ENZYME FERMENTERS (TH 6; PR 2)
HOMOGENEOUS FERMENTERS BATCH AND CONTINUOUS. DESIGN OF FERMENTERS UTILIZING IMMOBILIZED ENZYMES.

AERATION DESIGN (TH 6; PR 2)
PHYSICAL MODEL OF THE AERATION OF A FERMENTER. DESIGN OF AN AERATED AND AGITATED SYSTEM, AGITATION OF A HOMOGENEOUS SYSTEM, EFFECTS OF AGITATION AND AERATION ON THE BUBBLE FLOW AND MASS EXCHANGE.


MODULE: FOOD PROCESS DESIGN (TOTAL HOURS 60: TH 40, PR 20)

FOOD PROCESS INNOVATION (TH 3)
PULSED ELECTRIC FIELDS, HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE, HIGH-PRESSURE HOMOGENIZATION, OHMIC HEATING. CRYOCONCENTRATION. FOOD QUALITY. PLANT SIZING.

MEMBRANE SEPARATION (TH 3; PR 2)
POLARIZATION AND FOULING. TRANSPORT MECHANISMS AND FLOW OF PERMEATE. MATERIALS. MICROFILTRATION, ULTRAFILTRATION, REVERSE OSMOSIS.

MICRONIZATION AND NANONIZATION (TH 3)
DISPERSED STATE PROPERTIES. PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS. COMMINUTION. ENERGY OF COMMINUTION AND EQUIPMENT.

EMULSIFICATION (TH 3)
PREPARATION OF EMULSIONS: CLASSIFICATION OF EMULSIFIERS, INGREDIENTS AND FORMULATION. PREPARATION OF NANO-EMULSIONS: HIGH-PRESSURE HOMOGENIZERS. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL STABILITY OF EMULSIONS: PHENOMENOLOGY AND MEASURING INSTRUMENTS.

PLANT DESIGN (TH 5)
ORGANIZING A PROJECT: THE CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF A PROCESS PLANT, METHODS OF DESIGN AND INTEGRATION; FORMULATION OF A BASE CASE.

COMPLEX SYSTEMS (TH 6)
DRYING; FREEZE-DRYING, SPRAY - DRYING, STERILIZATION, FREEZING. ANALYSIS OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT.
TYPES OF LAYOUT: FIXED LOCATION, BY PRODUCT, BY DEPARTMENT, TO MACHINING CELLS. MAIN ELEMENTS OF AN INDUSTRIAL PLANT

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS PLAN (TH 9, PR 6)
VALUE OF MONEY. AMORTIZATION. COSTS, EARNINGS, PROFITS AND RETURN OF INVESTMENTS. ECONOMICS OF SELECTING ALTERNATES. ECONOMIC BALANCE. ECONOMIC BALANCE IN CYCLIC OPERATIONS. BUSINESS PLAN (BUSINESS IDEA, MACRO AND MICRO ENVIROMENTAL ANALYSIS, MARKETING PLAN, ORGANIZATION OF HUMAN RESOURCES, INVESTMENTS DESCRIPTION, FINANCIAL ANALYSIS).

DEVELOPMENT OF A BUSINESS PLAN OF A PRODUCTION LINE FOR THE FOOD INDUSTRY (TH 8; PR 12)
EQUIPMENT SIZING, DETERMINATION OF OPERATING PARAMETERS, OPTIMIZATION OF SYSTEMS AND PROCESSES OF THE FOOD INDUSTRY, ESTIMATION OF FIXED AND VARIABLE COSTS OF THE PROCESS AND UNIT COSTS OF THE PRODUCTS, ENERGY OPTIMIZATION OF PLANTS.
Teaching Methods
MODULE: BIOCHEMICAL REACTORS

THE MODULE IS KEPT IN ENGLISH AND CONSISTS IN FRONT LESSONS (46H), AND CLASSROOM EXERCISES (14H) FOR A TOTAL AMOUNT OF 60 HOURS WHICH ARE WORTH 6 CREDITS. TEACHING INVOLVES LECTURES, WITH THE USE OF MULTIMEDIA DEVICES FOR DISPLAYING CURRENT TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS, AND CLASSROOM PRACTICE. THE LECTURES PROVIDE THE THEORETICAL CONCEPTS AT THE BASIS OF THE TOPICS DISCUSSED. CLASSROOM PRACTICE HAS THE MAIN PURPOSE OF PUTTING IN PLACE CALCULATIONS FOR EQUIPMENT DESIGN.
ATTENDANCE OF THE COURSE IS STRONGLY RECOMMENDED.

MODULE: FOOD PROCESS DESIGN

THE MODULE IS KEPT IN ENGLISH AND CONSISTS IN FRONT LESSONS (40H), AND PRACTICALS (20H) FOR A TOTAL AMOUNT OF 60 HOURS WHICH ARE WORTH 6 CREDITS. THE FRONTAL LECTURING ADDRESSES THE MAIN THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF THE COURSE TOPICS. IT IS USUALLY CARRIED OUT USING A COMPUTER-AIDED PRESENTATION AND THE BLACKBOARD, WITH THE SUPPORT OF COURSE MATERIAL. CLASSROOM EXERCISES COMPRISE CALCULATION OF PROCESS TIMES, SIZING OF EQUIPMENT, AS WELL AS THE DESIGN OF A PRODUCTION LINE OF THE FOOD INDUSTRY IN A SMALL TEAM OF STUDENTS AND GUIDED BY THE TEACHER. THE LABORATORY PRACTICAL CLASSES ARE ADDRESSED TO SHOW THE STUDENTS THE TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS RELATED TO THE UNIT OPERATIONS INTRODUCED BY THE COURSE AND REQUIRED IN THE DESIGN OF THE PRODUCTION LINE.
ATTENDANCE OF THE COURSE IS STRONGLY RECOMMENDED.
Verification of learning
THE EVALUATION OF THE ACHIEVEMENT OF THE EXPECTED OUTCOMES WILL BE CARRIED OUT WITH THE PRESENTATION OF A DESIGN PROJECT (FOR THE MODULE OF FOOD PROCESS DESIGN) AND AN ORAL INTERVIEW ON THE THEMES OF EACH MODULE.
UPON REQUEST, THE STUDENT CAN BE INTERVIEWED SEPARATELY FOR THE TWO MODULES. WITH REFERENCE TO THE MODULE OF BIOCHEMICAL REACTORS THE INTERVIEW WILL INCLUDE THREE QUESTIONS EACH ON ONE OF THE FOLLOWING THEMES: THE OPERATION AND THE DESIGN OF A MICROBIAL BIO-REACTOR, THE PRINCIPLES AND THE DESIGN OF AN AERATION SYSTEM, THE USE OF ENZYMES IN BIOREACTORS.
WITH REFERENCE TO THE MODULE OF FOOD PROCESS DESIGN, THE INTERVIEW WILL CONSIST IN THE DETAILED PRESENTATION OF THE DESIGN PROJECT, AND IN THREE QUESTIONS, THE FIRST ONE ADDRESSING THE BUSINESS IDEA AND THE BUSINESS PLAN OF THE DESIGN PROJECT, THE SECOND ONE ABOUT ONE OF THE UNIT OPERATIONS DISCUSSED IN THE DESIGN PROJECT, AND THE THIRD ONE CONCERNING DESIGN OR VERIFICATION PROBLEMS RELATED TO THE UNIT OPERATIONS INTRODUCED BY THE COURSE MODULE. THIS INTERVIEW AIMS AT ASSESSING THE CAPABILITY TO FORMULATE CORRECTLY THE MASS AND ENERGY BALANCES AND OF THE DESIGN EQUATIONS.
TO PASS THE EXAM THE STUDENT MUST DEMONSTRATE THAT HE IS ABLE TO UNDERSTAND AND KNOW HOW TO APPLY THE MAIN CONCEPTS AND METHODOLOGICAL INSTRUMENTS EXPRESSED IN THE COURSE. IT IS CONSIDERED AN ESSENTIAL CONDITION FOR PASSING THE EXAM THE CORRECT FORMULATION OF THE MASS BALANCES AND OF THE WORKING PRINCIPLES REGARDING THE REACTOR SCHEMES AND THE PROCESS OPERATION ELUCIDATED IN THE COURSE. THE STUDENT ACHIEVE THE EXCELLENCE WHEN HE/SHE IS ABLE TO DEMONSTRATE THE USE IN AUTONOMY OF THESE PRINCIPLES FOR THE COMPLETE AND CORRECT FORMULATION OF RELEVANT MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF EQUIPMENT OPERATION AND DESIGN PROCEDURES ALSO IN CASES WHICH SHOW SIGNIFICANT ELEMENTS OF DIFFERENCE WITH THE CASES COVERED IN THE COURSE.
THE FINAL SCORE IS EVALUATED AS THE MEAN OF THE SCORES GOT IN EACH MODULE.
Texts
MODULE: BIOCHEMICAL REACTORS

B. ATKINSON, BIOCHEMICAL REACTORS, PION LIMITED, LONDON, (ISBN 0-85086-042-3).
H.W. BLANCH, D.S. CLARK, BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING,DEKKER, LONDON (ISBN 0-8247-8949-0).
J.E. BAILEY., D.F. OLLIS, BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS, MCGRAW HILL, NEW YORK, (ISBN 0-07-066601-6).
I.J. DUNN, E. HEINZLE J. INGHAM, J.E. PRENOSIL, BIOLOGICAL REACTION ENGINEERING, VCH, WEINHEIM, (ISBN 3-527-28511-3).


MODULE: FOOD PROCESS DESIGN


D.F. RUDD, C.C. WATSON, STRATEGY OF PROCESS ENGINEERING, PRENTICE-HALL, USA (ISBN: 9780123969590).
G.D. SARAVACOS AND A.E. KOSTAROPOULOS, HANDBOOK OF FOOD PROCESSING EQUIPMENT, KLUWER ACADEMIC/PLENUM PUBLISHERS, USA (ISBN 9783319250205).
A. IBARZ, G.V. BARBOSA-CANOVAS, UNIT OPERATIONS IN FOOD ENGINEERING. CRC PRESS, USA (ISBN 9781420012620).
Z.B. MAROULIS, G.D. SARAVACOS, FOOD PROCESS DESIGN. MARCEL DEKKER, INC., USA (ISBN 0824743113).
THE COURSE MATERIAL IS AVAILABLE ON THE E-LEARNING PLATFORM OF THE UNIVERSITY OF SALERNO (HTTPS://ELEARNING.UNISA.IT/COURSE/VIEW.PHP?ID=1921)
More Information
PLACE AND TIME OF DELIVERY
THE COURSE IS DELIVERED AT THE DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING. PLEASE LOOK UP INTO THE DEPARTMENT WEBSITE (HTTPS://CORSI.UNISA.IT/INGEGNERIA-ALIMENTARE/DIDATTICA/CALENDARI OR HTTPS://CORSI.UNISA.IT/INGEGNERIA-CHIMICA-MAGISTRALE/DIDATTICA/CALENDARI) FOR THE INDICATION OF THE TIMETABLE AND OF THE CLASSROOM.
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