Applied Thermodynamics and Energy Systems

Ingegneria Gestionale Applied Thermodynamics and Energy Systems

0612600012
DIPARTIMENTO DI INGEGNERIA INDUSTRIALE
EQF6
INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT
2022/2023

OBBLIGATORIO
YEAR OF COURSE 2
YEAR OF DIDACTIC SYSTEM 2018
FULL ACADEMIC YEAR
CFUHOURSACTIVITY
1TERMODINAMICA APPLICATA E SISTEMI ENERGETICI (MODULO ING-IND/10)
660LESSONS
2TERMODINAMICA APPLICATA E SISTEMI ENERGETICI (MODULO ING-IND/08)
660LESSONS
Objectives
OBJECTIVE OF THE COURSE OF APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS AND ENERGY SYSTEMS IS TO PROVIDE THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE MAIN CONCEPTS CONCERNING THERMODYNAMICS, HEAT TRANFER AND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS. THE COURSE, PLACED IN THE SECOND YEAR OF THE CDL IN MANAGEMENT ENGINEERING, IS 12 CREDITS AND IS DIVIDED ON TWO SEMESTERS. IN THE FIRST HALF THE STUDY OF APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS IS FACED, IN THE SECOND HALF THE STUDY OF ENERGY SYSTEMS.

KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
THE MAIN KNOWLEDGE ACQUIRED BY THE STUDENT IN THE COURSE ARE:

- I AND II LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS FOR CLOSED AND OPEN SYSTEMS
- MODELS OF STATE THERMODYNAMICS
- APPLICATIONS OF I AND II THERMODYNAMICS LAW ON COMPONENTS OF HEATING SYSTEMS
- PROPERTIES AND TRANSFORMATIONS OF THE MOIST AIR
- STEAM POWER PLANT
- HEAT PUMP AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEM
- MAIN THERMAL EXCHANGE MECHANISMS (CONDUCTION, CONVECTION AND IRRADIANCE)
- BASIC PRINCIPLES OF THE STUDY OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
- OPTIMUM UTILIZATION OF ENERGY RESOURCES
- ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS LINKED TO CONVENTIONAL, ALTERNATIVE AND RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES
-QUANTITATIVE STUDY OF ENERGY FLOWS IN THERMAL AND HYDRAULIC FLUID MACHINES
-STUDY OF OPERATING PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES FOR INCREASING THE PERFORMANCE OF DIFFERENT THERMAL POWER PLANTS (STEAM, GAS AND COMBINED CYCLE)
-CHARACTERISTIC CURVES OF PUMPS AND COMPRESSORS, ALONG WITH THEIR COUPLING WITH THE PLANT
- STRUCTURE AND OPERATING PRINCIPLE OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
- MAIN FIELDS OF APPLICATION OF PUMPS, COMPRESSORS AND THERMAL POWER PLANTS

ABILITY TO APPLY KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
AT THE END OF THE COURSE THE STUDENT WILL BE ABLE TO:

- CALCULATE THE THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES
- ANALYZE THE COMPONENTS OF A HEATING SYSTEM IN TERMS OF I AND II LAW
- ANALYZE A THERMAL POWER PLANT IN TERMS OF I AND II LAW
- ANALYZE IN TERMS OF I AND II LAW HEAT PUMPS / REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS
- EVALUATION OF THE HEAT EXCHANGE IN A COMBINED MECHANISM
- SIZING OF A HEAT EXCHANGER
- PERFORM PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS IN A TECHNICAL-ECONOMIC CONTEXT
- CARRY-OUT QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS ON THE ENERGY SAVINGS AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF EACH SPECIFIC PLANT
- ANALYZE ENERGY FLOWS IN MACHINES IN IDEAL AND REAL CONDITIONS
- IDENTIFY THE APPLICATION FIELDS OF MACHINES BASED ON FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS
- VERIFY AND IMPROVE THE PERFORMANCE OF THERMAL POWER PLANTS
- VERIFY THE PERFORMANCE OF PUMPS AND COMPRESSORS
- ASSESS THE RISK OF CAVITATION IN THE PUMPS

AUTONOMY OF JUDGMENT
KNOWING HOW TO DETERMINE THE MOST APPROPRIATE METHODOLOGIES TO ADDRESS THE STUDY OF AN ENERGY SYSTEM.

COMMUNICATION SKILLS
KNOWING HOW TO REPRESENT THROUGH THE WRITTEN AND ORAL TESTS, IN A CLEAR AND COINCISE WAY AND WITH AN APPROPRIATE TECHNICAL LANGUAGE, THE KNOWLEDGE GAINED DURING THE COURSE.

LEARNING SKILLS
HAVE THE ABILITY TO USE AND TO APPLY IN OTHER CONTEXTS THE KNOWLEDGE ACQUIRED BY DEEPENING THE TECHNICAL PROBLEMS.
Prerequisites
FOR THE SUCCESSFUL ACHIEVEMENT OF THE OBJECTIVES, THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE BASIC NOTIONS, AS GIVEN IN THE FIRST YEAR COURSES OF MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS, IS REQUIRED.
Contents
APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS
BASIC CONCEPTS (2 H) - SYSTEM AND ENVIRONMENT. THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES. THERMODYNAMIC STATE. SIMPLE AND COMPRESSIBLE SYSTEM. THERMODYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM. ALMOST STATIC AND CYCLE TRANSFORMATIONS. ENERGY, WORK AND HEAT.

FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS FOR CLOSED SYSTEMS (3 H THEORY - 1 H EXERCISE) - ENERGY POSTULATE. I LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS FOR ISOLATED SYSTEMS. MEASURABILITY AND CONTROLLABILITY OF ENERGY. OTHER FORMULATIONS OF THE I LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS FOR A CLOSED SYSTEM. LIMITS OF I LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS.

SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS FOR CLOSED SYSTEMS (5 H THEORY - 3 H EXERCISE) - ENTROPY POSTULATE. ENTROPY PROPERTIES. REVERSIBLE AND IRREVERSIBLE PROCESSES. II LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS FOR ISOLATED SYSTEMS. MEASURABILITY OF ENTROPY. GIBBS EQUATIONS. II LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS FOR CLOSED SYSTEMS. INEQUALITY OF CLAUSIUS. VOLUME CHANGE WORK. SPECIFIC HEAT. ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS. DIRECT AND REVERSE CARNOT CYCLES.

GENERAL LAWS OF OPEN SYSTEMS (4 H THEORY - 2 H EXERCISE) - CONTINUITY EQUATION OF THE MASS. I AND II LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS. MECHANICAL ENERGY EQUATION.

STATES THERMODYNAMICS (4 H THEORY - 3 H EXERCISE) - PHASE IDENTIFICATION. THERMODYNAMIC PLANS. LIQUIDS, SOLIDS, STEAM AND GAS: MODELS, CALCULATION OF THE PROPERTIES AND TRANSFORMATIONS.

MOIST AIR (2 H THEORY - 1 H EXERCISE) - PROPERTY, EQUATIONS OF STATE, PSYCHROMETRIC CHART, ELEMENTARY TRANSFORMATIONS.

MOTOR AND OPERATOR PLANTS (6 H THEORY - 4H EXERCISE) - COMPONENTS OF PLANTS. STEAM MOTOR PLANT. STEAM OPERATOR PLANT: REFRIGERATOR AND HEAT PUMP.
HEAT TRANSFER: INTRODUCTION TO THE THREE FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISMS OF HEAT EXCHANGE.

CONDUCTION (5 H THEORY - 3 H EXERCISE): FUNDAMENTAL EQUATION OF THE CONDUCTION. STUDY OF THE CONDUCTION IN CASE OF ONE-DIMENSIONAL STATIONARY SYSTEM WITH REFERENCE TO BODIES WITH PLANE AND CYLINDRICAL SYMMETRY WITHOUT GENERATION. MECHANISMS IN SERIES AND PARALLEL. STUDY OF THE CONDUCTION IN CASE OF NON-DIMENSIONAL STATIONARY SYSTEM.

THERMAL RADIATION (3 H THEORY - 2 H EXERCISE): BASIC DEFINITIONS. BLACK BODY: DEFINITION AND LAWS. SURFACES RADIATIVE CHARACTERISTICS. GREY BODY. RADIATIVE HEAT TRANSFER BETWEEN TWO PARALLEL FLAT AND INDEFINITE SURFACES. FACTORS OF VIEW.

CONVECTION (2 H THEORY - 2 H EXERCISE): NATURAL AND FORCED CONVECTION. LAW OF NEWTON. LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOW. INDOOR AND OUTDOOR FLOW. CONCEPT OF BOUNDARY LAYER. NON DIMENSIONAL GROUPS. EVALUATION OF THE UNITARY CONVECTIVE CONDUCTANCE FOR FORCED AND NATURAL CONVECTION.

HEAT EXCHANGERS (2 H THEORY - 1 H EXERCISE): GENERAL AND CLASSIFICATION OF THE MOST COMMON HEAT EXCHANGERS. EQUATION OF DESIGN AND CONCEPT OF EFFICIENCY.

FLUID MACHINERY AND ENERGY SISTEMS
ENERGY SOURCES (5H THEORY)– PRIMARY SOURCES. RENEWABLE ENERGIES. ENERGY MIX.

FLUID MACHINERY AND POWER PLANT CLASSIFICATION (2H THEORY)– TURBINES, COMPRESSORS AND PUMPS, DYNAMIC AND VOLUMETRIC, ALTERNATIVE AND ROTATIVE MACHINES

MACHINERY THERMODYNAMICS (4 H THEORY - 4 H EXERCISE)– ENERGY EQUATION. REAL EXPANSION AND COMPRESSION. ISENTROPIC AND POLYTROPIC EFFICIENCY.

WORK EXCHANGE (8H THEORY)– EULERO EQUATION. DEGREE OF REACTION. AXIAL TURBINES.

COMPRESSORS AND PUMPS (11 H THEORY - 5 H EXERCISE - 1 H LABORATORY)– HEAD. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL CHARACTERISTIC CURVES. STABILITY. CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR. VOLUMETRIC ALTERNATIVE COMPRESSOR. UTILIZATION FIELDS. CAVITATION, NPSH, VOLUMETRIC FLOW CONTROL (PUMPS).

STEAM POWER PLANTS (4 H THEORY - 4 H EXERCISE)– EFFICIENCY CHAIN. RANKINE AND HIRN CYCLES. SUPERHEATING AND REGENERATION.

GAS POWER PLANTS (6 H THEORY - 4 H EXERCISE)– JOULE CYCLE. WORK AND EFFICIENCY. INTERCOOLING AND REHEAT. REGENERATION. COMBINED CYCLES.

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES (2H THEORY)- STRUCTURE. OPERATING PRINCIPLES. IDEAL WORKING CYCLES. POWER FORMULA.
Teaching Methods
THE COURSE IS DIVIDED INTO TWO MODULES EACH OF 6 CFU AND PROVIDES FOR 120 HOURS OF TEACHING ASSISTED WITH 80 HOURS OF TEACHING IN THE CLASS AND 40 HOURS OF PRACTICE. IN THE CLASSROOM EXERCISES, NUMERICAL PROBLEMS ARE ASSIGNED TO STUDENTS WITH THE PURPOSE OF DEEPENING THE CONCEPTS CONCERNING THERMODYNAMICS, HEAT TRANSFER, ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS AND OPERATING MACHINES. IN THE LABORATORY EXERCISES, STUDENTS EXPERIMENTALLY FIND THE CHARACTERISTIC CURVES OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS. DURING THE EXERCISES, THE TEACHERS GUIDE THE STUDENTS IN SOLVING THE ASSIGNED PROBLEM WITH THE PURPOSE OF DEVELOPING AND STRENGTHENING THEIR CAPABILITIES IN FACING THE SPECIFIC APPLICATION.
Verification of learning
THE LEVEL OF ACHIEVEMENT OF TEACHING OBJECTIVES IS CERTIFIED BY PASSING AN EXAM WITH ASSESSMENT IN 30TH. STUDENTS MUST FIRST TAKE THE EXAM (WRITTEN AND ORAL) RELATING TO THE PART OF APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS OF THE COURSE, WHICH IS HELD IN THE FIRST SEMESTER, AND SUBSEQUENTLY THE EXAM (WRITTEN AND ORAL) RELATING TO THE ENERGY SYSTEMS PART OF THE COURSE, WHICH IS HELD IN THE SECOND SEMESTER.
AT THE END OF THE FIRST SEMESTER, THE STUDENT CAN SOON TAKE THE EXAM OF THE APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS PART. IN ANALOGUE WAY, AT THE END OF THE SECOND SEMESTER, THE STUDENT CAN SOON TAKE THE EXAM RELATING TO THE PART OF ENERGY SYSTEMS.
TO ACCESS THE ORAL EXAMS STUDENTS MUST PASS THE WRITTEN TESTS WITH A MINIMUM RATING OF 18/30. THE SCORE OF THE WRITTEN TEST IS DIVIDED INTO FOUR CLASSES (A, B, C, D). THE RESULTS OF THE WRITTEN TEST ARE AVAILABLE ON THE WEB PAGES OF THE PROFESSORS AND THE ORAL EXAMS WILL BE HELD ABOUT SEVEN DAYS DISTANCE FROM THE WRITTEN TEST.
PURPOSE OF THE WRITTEN TEST IS TO ASSESS THE STUDENT'S OPERATIONAL CAPABILITIES IN ADDRESSING THE PROBLEMS OF APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS, HEAT TRANSER AND ENERGY SYSTEMS.
THE WRITTEN TEST OF APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS INCLUDES TWO EXERCISES, TO BE CARRIED OUT IN 2 HOURS. THE FIRST EXERCISE CONCERNS THE THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF CLOSED OR OPEN SYSTEMS, OR STEAM POWER PLANT OR HEAT PUMPS. THE SECOND EXERCISE IS ABOUT THE RESOLUTION OF A COMBINED HEAT TRANSFER MECHANISM. IN THE WRITTEN TEST, THE FOLLOWING CALCULATIONS CAN BE REQUESTED: THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES, MECHANICAL AND THERMAL POWER, EFFICIENCY, ENTROPIC PRODUCTION, H EFFICIENCY AND AREA OF A HEAT EXCHANGER, UNITARY CONVECTIVE CONDUCTANCE, SURFACE EMITTANCE, THE GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF PHYSICAL PHENOMENA IS REQUIRED.
THE WRITTEN TEST OF ENERGY SYSTEMS, LASTING 2 HOURS, CONSISTS IN SOLVING A NUMERICAL PROBLEM ON THE SIZING OR VERIFICATION OF THE PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS OF A THERMAL POWER PLANT (GAS OR COMBINED CYCLE) OR VERIFICATION OF THE PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS AND CAVITATION-FREE FUNCTIONING OF PUMPS. THE EXERCISE OF EXAM WILL BE OF THE SAME TYPE AS THOSE SOLVED DURING THE CLASSROM EXERCISES, WHOSE SOLUTION IS AVAILABLE ON THE CLASS WEBSITE.
THE ORAL TEST IS INTENDED TO DEEPEN THE LEVEL OF THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE, THE AUTONOMY OF ANALYSIS AND JUDGMENT, AND THE STUDENT'S EXPOSITIVE CAPABILITIES.
IN THE ORAL EXAMINATION OF APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS, QUESTIONS MAY BE ASKED ABOUT: THE PRINCIPLES OF THERMODYNAMICS OFCLOSED AND OPEN SYSTEMS, THE THERMODYNAMICS OF THE STATES, IDEAL AND REAL WORKING CYCLES, PROPERTIES AND TRANSFORMATIONS OF MOIST AIR, THE FUNDAMENTAL EQUATIONS OF THERMAL EXCHANGE MECHANISMS, HEAT EXCHANGERS.
IN THE ORAL EXAMINATION OF ENERGY SYSTEMS, QUESTIONS MAY BE ASKED ABOUT: THE APPLICATIONS AND OPERATING PRINCIPLES OF THERMAL POWER PLANTS, PUMPS AND COMPRESSORS, WORK EXCHANGES AND THERMODYNAMICS APPLIED TO FLUID MACHINERY.
THE MINIMUM LEVEL OF EVALUATION (18/30) IS ATTRIBUTED WHEN THE STUDENT SHOWS A LIMITED KNOWLEDGE OF THE FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF THERMODYNAMICS, HEAT TRANSFER AND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS, AS WELL AS LOW EXPOSURE CAPABILITY.
THE MAXIMUM LEVEL (30/30) IS ATTRIBUTED WHEN THE STUDENT SHOWS A COMPLETE AND IN-DEPTH KNOWLEDGE OF THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES AND METHODS AND IS ABLE TO SOLVE THE PROPOSED PROBLEMS BY ADOPTING THE MOST APPROPRIATE APPROACH.
THE FINAL VOTE IS OBTAINED AS THE AVERAGE OF THE RESULTS ACHIEVED IN APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS AND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS.
HONORS ARE ATTRIBUTED WHEN THE CANDIDATE EXHIBITS HIGH-LEVEL THEORETICAL AND OPERATIVE SKILLS, AS WELL AS GOOD COMMUNICATION AND AUTONOMOUS PROCESSING CAPABILITIES, EVEN IN AREAS OTHER THAN THOSE PROPOSED BY THE PROFESSORS.
Texts
A.CESARANO, P. MAZZEI - ELEMENTI DI TERMODINAMICA - LIGUORI EDITORE.
R.MASTRULLO, P.MAZZEI, R.VANOLI - TERMODINAMICA PER INGEGNERI - LIGUORI EDITORE.
R.MASTRULLO,V. NASO, R.VANOLI - FONDAMENTI DI TRASMISSIONE DEL CALORE - LIGUORI EDITORE.
G.RIZZO, SUPPORTI DIDATTICI MULTIMEDIALI AL CORSO DI MACCHINE, CD-ROM, CUES.
R.DELLA VOLPE, MACCHINE, LIGUORI, NAPOLI.
R.DELLA VOLPE, ESERCIZI DI MACCHINE, LIGUORI, NAPOLI.
V. DOSSENA, G. FERRARI, P. GAETANI, G. MONTENEGRO, A. ONORATI, G. PERSICO, MACCHINE A FLUIDO, CITTÀ STUDI.

FOR FURTHER READING:
MORAN, SHAPIRO, MUNSON, DEWITT. ELEMENTI DI FISICA TECNICA PER L'INGEGNERIA, MCGRAW-HILL.
OZISIK. HEAT TRANSFER: A BASIC APPROACH, MCGRAW-HILL.
I.I IONEL, PUMPS AND PUMPING, ELSEVIER.
M.J. MORAN, H.N. SHAPIRO, FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS, JOHN WILEY AND SONS.

THE MATERIAL FOR THE EXERCISES, EVEN IF PRESENT IN THE RECOMMENDED TEXTS, WILL BE INTEGRATED DURING THE COURSE BY THE PROFESSORS.
More Information
COURSE DELIVERED IN ITALIAN LANGUAGE.

SLIDES OF ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS AVAILABLE AT HTTPS://ELEARNING.UNISA.IT/
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