BIOCHEMISTRY AND MICROBIOLOGY

Scienze Ambientali BIOCHEMISTRY AND MICROBIOLOGY

0512700011
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGY "ADOLFO ZAMBELLI"
EQF6
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES
2022/2023

OBBLIGATORIO
YEAR OF COURSE 2
YEAR OF DIDACTIC SYSTEM 2016
AUTUMN SEMESTER
CFUHOURSACTIVITY
1BIOCHIMICA (MODULO DI BIOCHIMICA E MICROBIOLOGIA)
648LESSONS
2MICROBIOLOGIA (MODULO DI BIOCHIMICA E MICROBIOLOGIA)
432LESSONS
224LAB
ExamDate
PROVA MICROBIOLOGIA23/02/2023 - 11:00
PROVA BIOCHIMICA24/02/2023 - 15:00
PROVA BIOCHIMICA24/02/2023 - 15:00
SOLO VERBALIZZAZIONE ESAME DA 12 CFU25/02/2023
Objectives
PRINCIPLES OF CHEMICAL BIOLOGY (FOR CHEMISTRY) AND BIOCHEMISTRY MODULE (FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES)
THE BIOCHEMISTRY COURSE INTENDS TO PROVIDE THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE BIOCHEMICAL TERMINOLOGY AND OF THE MOLECULAR BASES OF BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS, OF ENZYMATIC CATALYSIS, OF THE BASES OF THE STRUCTURE-FUNCTION RELATIONSHIP OF PROTEINS AND ENZYMES, OF THE MAIN METABOLIC PATHS AND OF THEIR INTEGRATIONS. THE COURSE ALSO INTENDS TO ENABLE THE STUDENT TO CRITICALLY EVALUATE THE KNOWLEDGE ACQUIRED, USING IT ESPECIALLY FOR THE UNDERSTANDING OF BIOCHEMICAL MECHANISMS.

MICROBIOLOGY MODULE (FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES ONLY):
WITH THE MICROBIOLOGY MODULE THE STUDENT IS INTRODUCED INTO THE WORLD OF MICROORGANISMS, WITH PARTICULAR REGARD TO PROKARYOTES, MAKING HIM UNDERSTAND THE MAIN ASPECTS THAT CHARACTERIZE IT AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON HUMAN LIFE AND ACTIVITIES, AND ON THE ENVIRONMENT. THE STRUCTURE OF THE COURSE, 32 HOURS OF THEORETICAL LESSONS (4 CFU) AND 24 HOURS OF PRACTICAL LABORATORY (2 CFU), IS DESIGNED TO SATISFY THE DUBLIN 1 AND 2 DESCRIPTORS AND TO FORM AN INDEPENDENT AND CRITICAL STUDENT, ABLE TO FACE THE PRACTICAL STUDY OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY. THE HOURS OF THEORETICAL LESSON HAVE SEVERAL PURPOSES: TO INFUSE THE PRINCIPLES OF THE CLASSIFICATION OF MICROORGANISMS AND THEIR PHYLOGENY, ALSO FOR AN EASIER MEMORIZATION OF THE MAJOR MICROBIAL GROUPS AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS; CLARIFY THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN EUKARYOTIC AND PROKARYOTIC CELLS, IN ORDER TO UNDERSTAND THEIR STRUCTURAL, FUNCTIONAL AND ECOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES; TO ACQUIRE THE CONCEPT OF NUTRITIONAL CLASS AND ENERGY METABOLISM, IN ORDER TO MEMORIZE AND UNDERSTAND BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES AND TO PREDICT THE IMPACT THAT MICROORGANISMS CAN EXERT ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND HUMANS. THE MAIN OBJECTIVE OF THE LABORATORY IS TO DEVELOP IN THE STUDENT THE ABILITY TO APPLY THE KNOWLEDGE ACQUIRED GRADUALLY DURING THE THEORETICAL LESSONS AND TO VERIFY THE COMPREHENSION SKILLS. DURING THIS PHASE THE BASIC TECHNIQUES FOR THE STUDY AND MANIPULATION OF MICROORGANISMS ARE ACQUIRED (PREPARATION OF GROWTH MEDIA, QUANTIZATION OF MICROORGANISMS, MORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION, STUDY OF GROWTH, ISOLATION FROM DIFFERENT NATURAL AND NON-NATURAL MATRICES). MOREOVER, BY CARRYING OUT A MINI-PROJECT AT THE END OF THE MODULE, THE STUDENT IS FURTHER STIMULATED TO BECOME AUTONOMOUS THROUGH THE CORRECT APPLICATION OF THE KNOWLEDGE AND TECHNIQUES PREVIOUSLY LEARNED. THE ACHIEVEMENT OF THE OBJECTIVES IS VERIFIED DIRECTLY DURING THE LABORATORY HOURS FROM THE EVALUATION OF THE RESULTS AND THROUGH A REPORT MADE BY THE STUDENT, WHICH WILL BE CONSIDERED FOR THE AVERAGE SCORE IN THE FINAL EVALUATION TEST. THE MICROBIOLOGY MODULE AS STRUCTURED IS IN LINE WITH THE GENERAL OBJECTIVES OF THE DEGREE COURSE IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES AND THOSE SPECIFIC TO THE RELATED GROUPING AS IT CONTRIBUTES TO THE FORMATION OF AN ADEQUATE BASIC CULTURE IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES, IT PROVIDES THE BASIC MICROBIOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS TO FACE AND INTERPRET MONITORING DATA AND IDENTIFY METHODS FOR THE CONSERVATION OF THE ENVIRONMENT AND TO LIMIT THE DAMAGES DERIVING FROM HUMAN
Prerequisites
FOR CHEMISTRY:
KNOWLEDGE IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY IS MANDATORY

FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES:
KNOWLEDGE IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY IS MANDATORY FOR THE BIOCHEMISTRY MODULE.
IN ORDER TO BETTER UNDERSTAND THE CONTENTS COVERED BY THE MICROBIOLOGY MODULE, IT IS ADVISABLE TO PASS THE BIOCHEMISTRY MODULE FIRST.
Contents
PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY (FOR CHEMISTRY) AND BIOCHEMISTRY MODULE (FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES):
THE COURSE TAKES 48 HOURS (6 CFU) OF LECTURES. THE TOPICS ADDRESSED ARE:
• INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY, FUNDAMENTALS OF CELL BIOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY (2 HOURS)
• THE MAIN BIOLOGICAL MACROMOLECULES: CARBOHYDRATES (2 HOURS)
• THE MAIN BIOLOGICAL MACROMOLECULES: LIPIDS, NUCLEIC ACIDS (2 HOURS)
• THE MAIN BIOLOGICAL MACROMOLECULES: AMINO ACIDS AND PEPTIDES (2 HOURS)
• STRUCTURE LEVELS OF PROTEINS: PEPTIDE BOND. SECONDARY STRUCTURE: MAIN CLASSES. TERTIARY STRUCTURE OF GLOBULAR PROTEINS AND STABILIZING FACTORS. QUATERNARY STRUCTURE. INTRINSICALLY DISORDERED PROTEIN (2 HOURS)
• PROTEIN FUNCTIONS: MYOGLOBIN AND HEMOGLOBIN, STRUCTURAL PROTEINS (4 HOURS)
• ENZYMES. ENZYME COFACTORS. MECHANISM OF ACTION OF ENZYMES. KINETICS AND ENZYMATIC INHIBITION. ALLOSTERIC ADJUSTMENT (6 HOURS)
• GENERAL CONCEPTS ON METABOLISM. PRINCIPLES OF BIOENERGETICS AND THERMODYNAMICS. HIGH ENERGY MOLECULES (4 HOURS).
• METABOLISM OF SUGARS: GLYCOLYSIS AND FERMENTATION, OXIDATIVE DECARBOXYILATION OF THE PIRUVATE. GLYCOGENOLYSIS AND GLYCOGENOSYNTHESIS. THE CYCLE OF PENTOSIS. CYCLE OF CORI, CYCLE OF KREBS (8 HOURS)
• CATABOLISM OF AMINO ACIDS. THE UREA CYCLE. (4 HOURS)
• METABOLISM OF LIPIDS (4 HOURS)
• OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORILATION. (4 HOURS)
• NOTES TO THE MAIN ANABOLIC ROUTES. (2 HOURS)
• THE CHLOROPHILLIAN PHOTOSYNTHESIS (2 HOURS)

MICROBIOLOGY MODULE (ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES ONLY):
MICROBIOLOGY MODULE OCCUPIES 56 HOURS (6CFU) BETWEEN FRONTAL LESSON (4 CFU, 32 HOURS) AND GUIDED PRACTICE ACTIVITIES IN THE LABORATORY (2CFU, 24 HOURS). IN THIS WAY, STUDENTS DIRECTLY CONTROL WHAT THE TEACHER INTRODUCES DURING THE LESSONS (WITH A LEARNING-BY-DOING APPROACH).
THE TOPICS OF THE FRONTAL LESSONS (4 CFU) IN THE MODULE OF MICROBIOLOGY ARE:
CLASSIFICATION OF MICROORGANISMS AND DESCRIPTION OF MAIN TAXA, 4 HORUS;
PROKARYOTIC CELL AND COMPARISON WITH EUCARIOTIC CELL, 4 HORUS;
PHENOTYPICAL AND MOLECULAR TECHNIQUES FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF MICROORGANISMS, 2 HORUS: STAINING, MICROSCOPY, BIOCHEMICAL AND MOLECULAR METHODS;
CULTURE MEDIA 2 HOURS: CLASSIFICATION AND PROTOCOLS FOR MEDIA PREPARATION;
MICROBIC QUANTIZZATION 2 HOURS;
MATHEMATICS OF GROWTH, 2 HORUS;
ENERGETIC METABOLISM AND NUTRITIONAL CLASSES 8 HOURS;
ENTEROBACTERIACEAE, NITRIFYING AND DENITRIFYING BACTERIA, SULPHATE AND SULFUR REDUCING BACTERIA, COLORLESS SULFUR BACTERIA, METHANOGENS (6 HOURS);
PHOTOSYNTHETIC BACTERIA (CYANOBACTERIA, RED AND GREEN BACTERIA) (2 HORUS);
NITROGEN FIXATION, NITROGEN ASSIMILATION, NITROGEN FIXING BACTERIA, 4 HOURS;
ARCHAEA: CLASSIFICATION, STRUCTURE, ECOLOGY, 2 HOURS;
FUNGI: STRUCTURE AND MAIN GROUPS, 2 HOURS.

THE TOPICS OF LABORATORY ACTIVITIES (2 CFU) ARE:
GRAM AND SCHEAFFER-FULTON STAINING, 4 HOURS;
PREPARATION OF CULTURE MEDIA AND TECHNIQUES FOR DIFFUSION OF MICROORGANISMS ON PETRI DISHES 4 HOURS;
METHOD OF SERIAL DILUTIONS, SOWING AND MICROBIAL QUANTIZATION, 6 HOURS;
ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MICROORGANISMS FROM ENVIRONMENTAL MATRIX, 10 HOURS: MICROBIAL LEACHING, SOWING ON PETRI DISHES WITH METHOD OF SERIAL DILUTIONS
(4 HORUS), TOTAL QUANTIZATION OF MICROORGANISMS (3 HOURS); IDENTIFICATION OF MOST RELEVANT GROUPS WITH PHENOTYPIC TECHNIQUES (3 HOURS).
Teaching Methods
THE COURSE INCLUDES FRONTAL LESSONS WITH A TOTAL DURATION OF 48 HOURS (6 CFU), WHICH TAKE PLACE IN THE CLASSROOM WITH THE PROJECTION OF EDUCATIONAL MATERIAL IN ELECTRONIC FORMAT. INTERACTIVE DIDACTICS METHODS AND FLIPPED CLASSROOM CAN BE APPLIED FOR SELECTED TOPICS.
ATTENDANCE OF THE LESSONS IS NOT OBLIGATORY, THAT AT THE LESSONS HELD WITH INTERACTIVE EDUCATION AND FLIPPED CLASSROM IS STRONGLY RECOMMENDED.

THE MODULE OF MICROBIOLOGY (ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES ONLY) INCLUDES 36 HOURS OF FRONTAL LESSONS (4 CFU) IN THE CLASSROOM, WITH THE HELP OF PROJECTIONS, AND 24 HOURS (2CFU) OF PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES IN THE LABORATORY.
THE FREQUENCY OF LESSON IS NOT OBLIGATORY, THAT OF LABORATORY ARE STRONGLY RECOMMENDED. IN ORDER TO SUPPORT THE FINAL EXAM, STUDENT MUST HAVE ATTENDED AT LEAST 70% OF HOURS OF PRATICAL ACTIVITIES. THE PRESENCE CHECKING MODE IS NOTIFIED BY THE DOCENT WITH A MONTHLY CADENCY
Verification of learning
THE LEVEL OF ACHIEVEMENT OF THE OBJECTIVES OF THE TEACHING OF PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY.(FOR CHEMISTRY) IS CERTIFIED BY PASSING A WRITTEN TEST.
THE TEST IS 30 MINUTES LONG AND INCLUDES A COMBINATION OF MULTIPLE-CHOICE (WORTH 1 OR 2 POINTS) AND DIRECT-RESPONSE (SHORT) QUESTIONS (WORTH A MAXIMUM OF 3 POINTS), POSSIBLY SUPPLEMENTED WITH AN OPEN-ENDED QUESTION WORTH A MAXIMUM OF 5 POINTS (IN WHICH CASE THE TEST LASTS 45 MINUTES). THIS TEST IS AIMED AT VERIFYING THE ACQUISITION OF: KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS RELATED TO THE TOPICS OF THE TEACHING; ABILITY TO CORRECTLY APPLY THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE; ABILITY TO UNDERSTAND THE PROPOSED PROBLEMS; ADEQUATE LANGUAGE PROPERTY IN EXPOSITION.
THE EXAM GRADE IS AWARDED BY SUMMING THE SCORES OF THE QUESTIONS WITH CORRECT ANSWERS. FOR OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS, A GRADED SCORE WILL BE AWARDED BY EVALUATING DEMONSTRATED KNOWLEDGE, LANGUAGE PROPERTY, AND ABILITY TO CORRECTLY IDENTIFY THE BIOLOGICAL CONTEXT IN WHICH THE SUBJECT OF THE QUESTION IS SITUATED. THE MINIMUM SCORE TO PASS THE EXAM IS 18/30, THE MAXIMUM SCORE IS 30/30. HONORS MAY BE AWARDED TO STUDENTS WHO HAVE ANSWERED ALL QUESTIONS CORRECTLY AND ALSO DEMONSTRATED EXCELLENT LANGUAGE SKILLS AND CRITICAL ABILITY IN WRITTEN EXPOSITION.
THE MAXIMUM VOTE (30/30) IS AWARDED WHEN THE STUDENT SHOWS A COMPLETE AND IN-DEPTH KNOWLEDGE and is able to ESTABLISH CONNECTIONS BETWEEN THE TOPICS COVERED.
PRAISE MAY BE ATTRIBUTED TO STUDENTS WHO REACH THE MAXIMUM VOTE OF 30/30 AND WHO PROVE TO BE ABLE TO APPLY AUTONOMY KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS ACQUIRED EVEN IN CONTEXTS OTHER THAN THOSE PROPOSED IN THE LESSON

THE LEVEL OF ACHIEVEMENT OF THE OBJECTIVES OF THE TEACHING "BIOCHEMISTRY AND MICROBIOLOGY". (FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES) IS CERTIFIED BY PASSING A TEST FOR EACH OF THE TWO MODULES.
THE FINAL VOTE IS EXPRESSED IN THIRTIES. THE MINIMUM MARK FOR PASSING THE TEST IS 18/30 FOR EACH MODULE.
THE BIOCHEMISTRY MODULE TEST IS A WRITTEN TEST ANALOGUE TO THE TEST DESCRIBED ABOVE.
THE ORAL EXAM OF MICROBIOLOGY HAS A VARIABLE DURATION, ACCORDING TO THE CANDIDATE PREPARATION LEVEL. IT CONSISTS IN AN INTERVIEW WITH QUESTIONS AND DISCUSSION ON THE CONTENTS INDICATED IN THE TEACHING PROGRAM, AND IT IS AIMED TO ASSESSING THE LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE ACHIEVED BY THE STUDENT AND HIS UNDERSTANDING CAPACITY; FURTHERMORE, IT IS AIMED TO VERIFY THE ABILITY TO COMMUNICATE EFFECTIVELY AND PERTINENTLY THE MICROBIOLOGICAL THEMATICS AND VERIFY THE EXPOSURE CAPACITY, THROUGH THE EVALUATION OF THE USE OF APPROPRIATE TERMINOLOGY AND OF THE ABILITY OF ORGANIZATION OF THE TOPICS EXPOSED. THE ORAL EXAM ALSO INCLUDES THE DISCUSSION OF A PRACTICAL CASE IN ORDER TO CHECK THE ABILITY TO APPLY THE THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE CORRECTLY AND THE ABILITY TO UNDERSTAND THE PROPOSED PROBLEMS, AS ISOLATION, QUANTIZATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF A MICROORGANISM BELONGING TO A SPECIFIC NUTRITIONAL CLASS; DESCRIPTION OF SPECIFIC CULTURE MEDIA FOR A GIVEN SPECIES AND OF THE METHOD USED FOR ISOLATION.
THE MINIMUM MARK FOR PASSING THE MICROBIOLOGY MODULE IS 18/30 AND IS AWARDED WHEN THE STUDENT DEMONSTRATES A LIMITED KNOWLEDGE OF THE STRUCTURE, ENERGETIC METABOLISM OF THE MICROORGANISMS AND TECHNIQUES FOR THEIR MANIPULATION IN LABORATORIES.
THE MAXIMUM MARK IS 30/30 AND IS REACHED WHEN THE STUDENT SHOWS A COMPLETE AND IN-DEPTH KNOWLEDGE OF THE BASIS OF MICROBIOLOGY.
THE PRAISE MAY BE ATTRIBUTED TO STUDENTS WHO HAVE ACHIEVED 30/30 AND WHO HAVE STAND OUT FOR THE ABILITY TO APPLY, AUTONOMUSLY, KNOWLEDGE AND COMPETENCE ACQUIRED, AND FOR THE AUTONOMOUS DEEPENING OF THE TOPICS PROPOSED IN THE LESSON.
Texts
PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY (CHEMISTRY) AND BIOCHEMISTRY MODULE (ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES):
CHOOSE A TEXT FROM THE FOLLOWING:
- D.C. NELSON, M.M. COX, INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY BY LEHNINGER, ZANICHELLI
- D. VOET, J.G. VOET, C. PRATT: PRINCIPLES OF BIOCHEMISTRY, ZANICHELLI
- TYMOCZKO, BERG, STRYER, PRINCIPLES OF BIOCHEMISTRY, ZANICHELLI
- CAMPBELL / FARRELL, BIOCHEMISTRY, EDISES
- J.D. RAWN, BIOCHEMISTRY, VOL. I., MCGRAW-HILL
- T. BROWN, KNOWING BIOCHEMISTRY, ZANICHELLI

MICROBIOLOGY MODULE (ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES ONLY)
•BROCK. BIOLOGIA DEI MICRORGANISMI:
VOL 1, MICROBIOLOGIA GENERALE.
VOL 2, MICROBIOLOGIA AMBIENTALE E INDUSTRIALE.
MICHAL T. MADIGAN.
ED. AMBROSIANA (OR PEARSON).
•LABORATORIO DI MICROBIOLOGIA
HARRY W. SEELEYÙED. ZANICHELLI
More Information
TEACHING IS DELIVERED IN THE ITALIAN LANGUAGE. THE REGULAR ATTENDANCE TO FRONTAL LESSONS IS STRONGLY RECOMMENDED. FURTHER INFORMATION CAN BE REQUESTED BY CONTACTING THE TEACHERS, IN THE HOURS OF RECEIPT, OR VIA E-MAIL:
AMARABOTTI@UNISA.IT (PRINCIPLES OF CHEMICAL BIOLOGY OR BIOCHEMISTRY MODULE)
GVIGLIOTTA@UNISA.IT (MICROBIOLOGY MODULE)
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